Abstract

The application of a Michelson interferometer with a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to measure small vibration amplitudes of a rough surface is described. The distorted wave front of the light that is diffusely reflected from the rough surface is restored by phase conjugation to provide an interference signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The vibration amplitudes of a stainless-steel sample are measured with a precision of ∼5 nm.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Paul, B. Betz, W. Arnold, “Interferometric detection of ultrasound at rough surfaces using optical phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569–1571 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Matsuda, H. Nakano, S. Nagai, “Optical detection of transient Lamb waves on rough surfaces by a phase-conjugate method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L987–L989 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Zhao, I. Yamaguchi, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of diffusely reflected light in a KNSBN crystal,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1098–1100 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometry for surface profile measurement,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3137–3140 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhao, I. Yamaguchi, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of diffusely reflected light in a KNSBN crystal,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1098–1100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Matsuda, H. Nakano, S. Nagai, “Optical detection of transient Lamb waves on rough surfaces by a phase-conjugate method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L987–L989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1987 (1)

M. Paul, B. Betz, W. Arnold, “Interferometric detection of ultrasound at rough surfaces using optical phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569–1571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

Arnold, W.

M. Paul, B. Betz, W. Arnold, “Interferometric detection of ultrasound at rough surfaces using optical phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569–1571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Betz, B.

M. Paul, B. Betz, W. Arnold, “Interferometric detection of ultrasound at rough surfaces using optical phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569–1571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Dokhanian, M.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 274–286 (1990).

Feinberg, J.

Gauthier, D. J.

George, M. C.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 274–286 (1990).

Howes, W. L.

Jungquist, R. K.

Kwong, N. S. K.

Lisson, J. B.

Maruyama, T.

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, Y.

Y. Matsuda, H. Nakano, S. Nagai, “Optical detection of transient Lamb waves on rough surfaces by a phase-conjugate method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L987–L989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, S.

Y. Matsuda, H. Nakano, S. Nagai, “Optical detection of transient Lamb waves on rough surfaces by a phase-conjugate method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L987–L989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

Y. Matsuda, H. Nakano, S. Nagai, “Optical detection of transient Lamb waves on rough surfaces by a phase-conjugate method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L987–L989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, H.

Paul, M.

M. Paul, B. Betz, W. Arnold, “Interferometric detection of ultrasound at rough surfaces using optical phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569–1571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, O.

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometry for surface profile measurement,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3137–3140 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shukla, R. P.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 274–286 (1990).

Suzuki, T.

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takebayashi, Y.

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, Y.

Y. Tomita, R. Yahalom, A. Yariv, “Phase shift and cross talk of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 73, 413–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 274–286 (1990).

Voci, L. L.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yahalom, R.

Y. Tomita, R. Yahalom, A. Yariv, “Phase shift and cross talk of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 73, 413–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yariv, A.

Y. Tomita, R. Yahalom, A. Yariv, “Phase shift and cross talk of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 73, 413–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Paul, B. Betz, W. Arnold, “Interferometric detection of ultrasound at rough surfaces using optical phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569–1571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Matsuda, H. Nakano, S. Nagai, “Optical detection of transient Lamb waves on rough surfaces by a phase-conjugate method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L987–L989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Tomita, R. Yahalom, A. Yariv, “Phase shift and cross talk of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 73, 413–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing spherical surfaces and lenses and for measuring refractive indices of liquids or solid transparent materials,” Opt. Commun. 78, 407–415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, Y. Takebayashi, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Sinusoidal phase-modulating Fizeau interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator for surface profile measurements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2670–2674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Response characteristics of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror to spatially nonuniform phase changes of an incident wave and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1184–1190 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, O. Sasaki, T. Suzuki, T. Maruyama, “Measurement of spatially nonuniform phase changes of a light beam utilizing reflectivity characteristic of a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1553–1559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, P. Venkateswarlu, M. C. George, “Phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 274–286 (1990).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Michelson interferometer with a SPPCM used for measurements of the vibration-amplitude distributions of a rough-surface object: L, lens; BS, beam splitter; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; Cu:KNSBN, Cu-doped KNSBN crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sheet of stainless steel used as the rough-surface object.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Gaussian beam, (b) light reflected by the stainless-steel plate, (c) phase-compensated phase-conjugate beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vibration-amplitude distribution measured with amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage V a = 2.7 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vibration-amplitude distributions directed toward (a) the x axis and (b) the y axis, taken from Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vibration-amplitude distribution measured with V a = 3.2 V.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase distributions of the phase-conjugate wave measured at (a) V a = 2.7 V and (b) V a = 3.2 V.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative intensities of the phase-conjugate wave.

Equations (4)

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Ax, y, t=ax, ycosωct,
Δαx, y, t=2π/λax, y/cos γcosωct,
Ix, y, t=I0x, y+S0x, y×cosZx, ycosωct+α,
Zx, y=4π/λax, y/cos γ

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