Abstract

High-sensitivity detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) at 3.5315 µm (2831.64 cm-1) is reported with a diode-laser-pumped, fiber-coupled, periodically poled LiNbO3 spectroscopic source. This source replaced the Pb–salt diode laser Dewar assembly of an existing tunable diode-laser absorption spectrometer designed for ultrasensitive detection of CH2O. Spectra are recorded with 2f-modulation spectroscopy and zero-air rapid background subtraction. Initial measurements reported here, determined from multiple measurements of a flowing 7.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv, parts in 109) CH2O in air mixture, indicate replicate precisions as low as 0.24 ppbv.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Werle, R. Mucke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999).
  4. K. P. Petrov, L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Detection of CO in air by diode-pumped 4.6-µm difference-frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 86–88 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Simon, F. K. Tittel, L. Goldberg, “Difference-frequency mixing in AgGaS2 by use of a high-power GaAlAs tapered semiconductor amplifier at 860 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1931–1933 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, “Highly efficient 4-W Yb-doped fiber amplifier pumped by a broad-stripe laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 24, 673–675 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. G. Lancaster, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Fibre coupled difference frequency generation utilizing a ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier and periodically poled LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1345–1346 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation source pumped by a 1.1–1.5-µm dual-wavelength fiber amplifier for trace-gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1517–1519 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, “High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1744–1746 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Wert, A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Enhancement of a tunable diode laser tropospheric trace gas measurement system,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 100–108 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”
  13. A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases,” in Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers III, Proc. SPIE3285, 154–162 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2097–2110 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Sams, “Line strengths of some selected transitions in the 2900 cm-1 region of H2CO,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds. Proc. SPIE2112, 62–69 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Sewell, A. Fried, B. Henry, D. R. Drummond, “A field diode-laser spectrometer employing an astigmatic Herriot cell,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 72–80 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

1998 (5)

L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation source pumped by a 1.1–1.5-µm dual-wavelength fiber amplifier for trace-gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1517–1519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Fibre coupled difference frequency generation utilizing a ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier and periodically poled LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1345–1346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (2)

U. Simon, F. K. Tittel, L. Goldberg, “Difference-frequency mixing in AgGaS2 by use of a high-power GaAlAs tapered semiconductor amplifier at 860 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1931–1933 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D. R.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brune, W. H.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999).

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999).

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, D. R.

S. Sewell, A. Fried, B. Henry, D. R. Drummond, “A field diode-laser spectrometer employing an astigmatic Herriot cell,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 72–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2097–2110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases,” in Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers III, Proc. SPIE3285, 154–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Wert, A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Enhancement of a tunable diode laser tropospheric trace gas measurement system,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 100–108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faloona, I.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F.

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

Ferry, G.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2097–2110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sewell, A. Fried, B. Henry, D. R. Drummond, “A field diode-laser spectrometer employing an astigmatic Herriot cell,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 72–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases,” in Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers III, Proc. SPIE3285, 154–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Wert, A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Enhancement of a tunable diode laser tropospheric trace gas measurement system,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 100–108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frost, G.

A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999).

Goldberg, L.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, G. L.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heikes, B. G.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B.

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2097–2110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sewell, A. Fried, B. Henry, D. R. Drummond, “A field diode-laser spectrometer employing an astigmatic Herriot cell,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 72–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases,” in Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers III, Proc. SPIE3285, 154–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Wert, A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Enhancement of a tunable diode laser tropospheric trace gas measurement system,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 100–108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D. J.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaeglé, L.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Kondo, Y.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J.

Lancaster, D. G.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, “High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1744–1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Fibre coupled difference frequency generation utilizing a ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier and periodically poled LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1345–1346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation source pumped by a 1.1–1.5-µm dual-wavelength fiber amplifier for trace-gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1517–1519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-N.

A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K. P.

Pueschel, R.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, “High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1744–1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R.

R. Sams, “Line strengths of some selected transitions in the 2900 cm-1 region of H2CO,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds. Proc. SPIE2112, 62–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, S.

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sewell, A. Fried, B. Henry, D. R. Drummond, “A field diode-laser spectrometer employing an astigmatic Herriot cell,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 72–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shetter, R.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simon, U.

Singh, H. B.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999).

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Trainer, M.

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B.

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2097–2110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases,” in Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers III, Proc. SPIE3285, 154–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

B. Wert, A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Enhancement of a tunable diode laser tropospheric trace gas measurement system,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 100–108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. G. Lancaster, L. Goldberg, J. Koplow, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Fibre coupled difference frequency generation utilizing a ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier and periodically poled LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1345–1346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, R. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3877–3892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. World (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999).

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2097–2110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. Sams, “Line strengths of some selected transitions in the 2900 cm-1 region of H2CO,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds. Proc. SPIE2112, 62–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Wert, A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Enhancement of a tunable diode laser tropospheric trace gas measurement system,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 100–108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. 80307), Y.-N. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, M. Trainer, F. Fehsenfeld are preparing a manuscript to be called “Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: instrument comparisons and distributions.”

A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases,” in Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers III, Proc. SPIE3285, 154–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Frost, Y.-N. Lee, “Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment,” in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE3758, 90–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sewell, A. Fried, B. Henry, D. R. Drummond, “A field diode-laser spectrometer employing an astigmatic Herriot cell,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 72–80 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a DFG laser system incorporated in a dual-channel airborne tunable diode-laser absorption spectrometer, which normally employs a liquid-nitrogen-cooled Pb–salt diode laser. A–D, analog to digital; D–A, digital to analog; DL, diode laser; OI, optical isolator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 20-s spectrum (solid curve), obtained by sampling of a 7.73-ppbv CH2O standard, and backgrounds (dotted curves) taken before and after (10-s averages). (b) Resultant CH2O spectrum with the averaged-background spectrum subtracted (dotted curve) and the fit second-harmonic profile (solid curve). The spectra are plotted in terms of channel number. For reference the 2831.642-cm-1 line center appears near channel 100, and the resolution of the display is approximately 7 × 10-4 cm-1 channel-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DFG sensor-based replication precision for CH2O standards of ∼7.7 and 0 ppbv employing second-harmonic detection along with rapid background subtraction. The mean fit values along with the upper and the lower 1σ precision for each measurement block are given by the dotted lines. The block replication precisions are also indicated below each block. The individual data points for the first four blocks are made up of two 10-s background spectra and one 20-s sample spectrum (see text). In the final measurement sequence on the right-hand side the sample and background averaging times were increased to 30 and 20 s, respectively. Error bars denote the 1σ fit precisions for each measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan variance plot generated by acquisition and subsequent fitting of 0.5-s sample averages for a 7.7-ppbv CH2O standard. The measurements show a system stability period of 25 s before systematic drifts become evident. At shorter time periods the Allan variance, σ A , improves by time-1, as expected from white noise. The square root of the Allan variance indicates a system detection limit of 0.251 ppbv for an integration time of 25 s.

Metrics