Abstract

For the retrieval of chlorophyll concentrations or the total absorption coefficients of oceanic waters based on water color, there are algorithms that use either band ratios or spectral curvatures of remote-sensing reflectance or water leaving radiance. We show that band-ratio algorithms have the potential to be applied to a wider dynamic range of oceanic waters, whereas spectral-curvature algorithms show stable performance as long as the data set falls within the appropriate range.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).
  6. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1084–1093 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. H. Barnard, J. R. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  17. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (4)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

1980 (1)

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. T.

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Campbell, J. W.

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

Evans, R. H.

Fry, E.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, G. F.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

Pope, R.

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Strong, A. E.

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C. C.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Zaneveld, J. R.

Appl. Opt. (8)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1084–1093 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, J. R. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophy. Res. (1)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophy. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Mahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relationship between the total absorption coefficient at 443 nm and a two-band ratio and a spectral curvature of remote-sensing reflectance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of algorithm derived a(443) versus real a(443) values.

Equations (11)

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rrsgbb/a,
aλ=awλ+apλ+agλ, bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ,
ap440=0.06C0.65, ag440=p1*ap440, bbp550=0.002+0.020.5-0.25 logC*p2*C0.62,
apλ=a0λ+a1λlnap440ap440, bbpλ=bbp550550λn, agλ=ag440exp-0.015λ-440,
p1=0.5+3.51*ap4400.02+ap440, p2=0.1+0.52, n=0.2+1.5+31+C,
ρ2B=rrs555rrs490, ρcurv=rrs443rrs490rrs490rrs555.
ρ2B=rrs555rrs490=g555g490bb555bb490a490a555.
ρ2Bbb555bb490a490a555=β2Ba490a555.
ρcurv=rrs555rrs490rrs490rrs443bb555bb443bb4902a4902a555a443
ρcurvβ3Ba490a443a555a490=β3Bα23/α12,
a443=exp-1.752+1.326γ+0.118expγ3,

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