Abstract

Complete birefringence compensation is demonstrated in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition waveguides by 193-nm postexposure. A single relaxation process dominates the decay in stress anisotropy, indicating that compressive stress from the substrate leads to an elastic stress anisotropy at the core.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.
  3. J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Birefringence compensation, improved fringe contrast, and trimming in an integrated asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer using mid-IR laser processing,” Opt. Mater. 14, 175–183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Wosinski, J. K. Sahu, H. Fernando, T. Augustsson, “Improvement of PECVD technology for low loss silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO ’99), Turin, Italy, 13–16 April 1999.
  6. H. I. Inglis, “Photo-induced effects in optical fibres,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1997).
  7. J. Canning, “Engineering large anisotropy in amorphous glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Nishii, H. Hosono, “Enormous photon-induced volume expansion of Ge-doped silica thin films,” in Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 16–18.

2000 (1)

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Birefringence compensation, improved fringe contrast, and trimming in an integrated asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer using mid-IR laser processing,” Opt. Mater. 14, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Canning, “Engineering large anisotropy in amorphous glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

Albert, J.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

Åslund, M.

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Birefringence compensation, improved fringe contrast, and trimming in an integrated asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer using mid-IR laser processing,” Opt. Mater. 14, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Augustsson, T.

L. Wosinski, J. K. Sahu, H. Fernando, T. Augustsson, “Improvement of PECVD technology for low loss silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO ’99), Turin, Italy, 13–16 April 1999.

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

Canning, J.

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Birefringence compensation, improved fringe contrast, and trimming in an integrated asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer using mid-IR laser processing,” Opt. Mater. 14, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, “Engineering large anisotropy in amorphous glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernando, H.

L. Wosinski, J. K. Sahu, H. Fernando, T. Augustsson, “Improvement of PECVD technology for low loss silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO ’99), Turin, Italy, 13–16 April 1999.

Hibino, Y.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

Hosono, H.

J. Nishii, H. Hosono, “Enormous photon-induced volume expansion of Ge-doped silica thin films,” in Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 16–18.

Inglis, H. I.

H. I. Inglis, “Photo-induced effects in optical fibres,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1997).

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

Kitigawa, T.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

J. Nishii, H. Hosono, “Enormous photon-induced volume expansion of Ge-doped silica thin films,” in Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 16–18.

Sahu, J. K.

L. Wosinski, J. K. Sahu, H. Fernando, T. Augustsson, “Improvement of PECVD technology for low loss silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO ’99), Turin, Italy, 13–16 April 1999.

Stryckman, D.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

L. Wosinski, J. K. Sahu, H. Fernando, T. Augustsson, “Improvement of PECVD technology for low loss silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO ’99), Turin, Italy, 13–16 April 1999.

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitigawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Birefringence compensation, improved fringe contrast, and trimming in an integrated asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer using mid-IR laser processing,” Opt. Mater. 14, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

L. Wosinski, J. K. Sahu, H. Fernando, T. Augustsson, “Improvement of PECVD technology for low loss silica-on-silicon integrated optics,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO ’99), Turin, Italy, 13–16 April 1999.

H. I. Inglis, “Photo-induced effects in optical fibres,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1997).

J. Nishii, H. Hosono, “Enormous photon-induced volume expansion of Ge-doped silica thin films,” in Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 16–18.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, “Birefringence control for ultraviolet-induced index change in planar lightwave circuits,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 24–26.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PECVD waveguide cross-sectional profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of Bragg wavelength for both TE (open squares) and TM (filled squares) polarization eigenstates of the PECVD grating with 193-nm postprocessing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference in effective index between TE and TM eigenstates with 193-nm postprocessing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TE mode profile of PECVD waveguide (a) without and (b) with irradiation at 193 nm (scale, 15 µm × 15 µm). Vertical and horizontal cross sections are overlaid (dashed, no irradiation; solid, with irradiation). Similar results were observed for the TM modes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Values for Core, Cladding, and Effective Indices as Well as Total and Form Birefringence

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