Abstract

Polar cap mesospheric winds observed with a Fabry–Perot interferometer with a circle-to-line interferometer optical (FPI/CLIO) system have been compared with measurements from a field-widened Michelson interferometer optimized for E-region winds (ERWIN). Both instruments observed the Meinel OH emission emanating from the mesopause region (∼86 km) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.9 °N, 94.9 °W). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that winds measured simultaneously from a ground-based Fabry–Perot interferometer and a ground-based Michelson interferometer have been compared at the same location. The FPI/CLIO and ERWIN instruments both have a capability for high temporal resolution (less than 10 min for a full scan in the four cardinal directions and the zenith). Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds for both instruments by scatterplots show excellent agreement, indicating that the two optical techniques provide equivalent observations of mesopause winds. Small deviations in the measured wind can be ascribed to the different zenith angles used by the two instruments. The combined measurements illustrate the dominance of the 12-h wave in the mesopause winds at Resolute Bay, with additional evidence for strong gravity wave activity with much shorter periods (tens of minutes). Future operations of the two instruments will focus on observation of complementary emissions, providing a unique passive optical capability for the determination of neutral winds in the geomagnetic polar cap at various altitudes near the mesopause.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999 (1)

G. M. Fisher, T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, P. B. Hays, J. M. Reeves, “Tidal variability of the geomagnetic polar cap mesopause above Resolute Bay,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 573–576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. I. Portnyagin, J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, E. G. Merzlyakov, S. Palo, “The summertime 12-h wind oscillation with zonal wavenumber s = 1 in the lower thermosphere over the South Pole,” Ann. Geophys. 16, 828–837 (1998).

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. D. Burrage, W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, “Intercalibration of HRDI and WINDII wind measurements,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1089–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Oznovich, D. J. McEwen, G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, “Tidal oscillations of the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere in winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4511–4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Meek, A. H. Manson, M. D. Burrage, G. Garbe, L. L. Cogger, “Comparisons between Canadian prairie MF radars, FPI (green and OH lines) and UARS HRDI systems,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1099–1110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. Heinselman, J. Sohn, “Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the Arctic,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2045–2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, J. M. Forbes, R. W. Smith, Y. Portnyagin, J. F. Booth, N. Makarov, “Simultaneous mesospheric wind measurements near South Pole by optical and meteor radar methods,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1079–1082 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,431–10,440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, G. G. Sivjee, “Very high frequency tides observed in the airglow over Eureka,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3651–3654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Seller, G. G. Shepherd, J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, “Antarctic high-latitude mesospheric dynamics,” Adv. Space. Res. 16, 71–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Smith, G. Hernandez, “Vertical winds in the thermosphere within the polar cap,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57, 611–620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, G. Schubert, “A dynamical chemical model of fluctuations in the OH air-glow driven by migrating tides, stationary tides and planetary waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 433–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, Y. I. Portnyagin, “First results from the meteor radar at South Pole: a large 12-hour oscillation with zonal wavenumber one,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 3247–3250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, D. J. McEwen, “Planetary wave disturbances in the Arctic winter mesopause over Eureka (80N),” Planet. Space Sci. 42, 973–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, J. Wang, P. B. Hays, “Performance of a circle-to-line optical system for a Fabry–Perot interferometer: a laboratory study,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7823–7828 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (5)

R. I. Crickmore, “A comparison between vertical winds and divergence in the high-latitude thermosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 11, 728–733 (1993).

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Fauliot, G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Observations of the F-region horizontal and vertical winds in the auroral zone,” Ann. Geophys. 11, 17–28 (1993).

G. Hernandez, G. J. Fraser, W. L. Jones, “Mesospheric 12 hour oscillation near South Pole, Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1787–1790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, J. F. Conner, “Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesopause above South Pole, Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, B. Nardi, P. N. Purcell, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, “Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer-2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1093–1096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, W. L. Jones, “Large-scale waves in the upper mesosphere at Antarctic high latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1347–1350 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1990 (2)

P. B. Hays, “Circle to line interferometer optical system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1482–1489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

M. A. Biondi, “Measured vertical motion and converging and diverging horizontal flow of the midlatitude thermosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 84–87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, A. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observation of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Optics 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. M. Forbes, “Atmospheric tides. 1. Model description and results for the solar diurnal component,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5222–5240 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Forbes, “Atmospheric tides. 2. The solar and lunar semidiurnal components,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5241–5259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

R. L. Walterscheid, “Inertio-gravity wave induced accelerations of mean flow having an imposed periodic component: implications for tidal oscillations in the meteor region,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9698–9706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. H. Francis, “Lower atmospheric gravity modes and their relation to middle-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8289–8295 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aruliah, A.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baker, D.

Biondi, M. A.

M. A. Biondi, “Measured vertical motion and converging and diverging horizontal flow of the midlatitude thermosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 84–87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Booth, J. F.

G. Hernandez, J. M. Forbes, R. W. Smith, Y. Portnyagin, J. F. Booth, N. Makarov, “Simultaneous mesospheric wind measurements near South Pole by optical and meteor radar methods,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1079–1082 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,431–10,440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burnside, R. G.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burrage, M. D.

M. D. Burrage, W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, “Intercalibration of HRDI and WINDII wind measurements,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1089–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Meek, A. H. Manson, M. D. Burrage, G. Garbe, L. L. Cogger, “Comparisons between Canadian prairie MF radars, FPI (green and OH lines) and UARS HRDI systems,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1099–1110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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G. M. Fisher, T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, P. B. Hays, J. M. Reeves, “Tidal variability of the geomagnetic polar cap mesopause above Resolute Bay,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 573–576 (1999).
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G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, W. L. Jones, “Large-scale waves in the upper mesosphere at Antarctic high latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1347–1350 (1992).
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W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
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Hoffman, P.

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
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Jones, W. L.

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G. M. Fisher, T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, P. B. Hays, J. M. Reeves, “Tidal variability of the geomagnetic polar cap mesopause above Resolute Bay,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 573–576 (1999).
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G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
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M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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G. Hernandez, J. M. Forbes, R. W. Smith, Y. Portnyagin, J. F. Booth, N. Makarov, “Simultaneous mesospheric wind measurements near South Pole by optical and meteor radar methods,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1079–1082 (1996).
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Y. I. Portnyagin, J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, E. G. Merzlyakov, S. Palo, “The summertime 12-h wind oscillation with zonal wavenumber s = 1 in the lower thermosphere over the South Pole,” Ann. Geophys. 16, 828–837 (1998).

J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, Y. I. Portnyagin, “First results from the meteor radar at South Pole: a large 12-hour oscillation with zonal wavenumber one,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 3247–3250 (1995).
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W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
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C. E. Meek, A. H. Manson, M. D. Burrage, G. Garbe, L. L. Cogger, “Comparisons between Canadian prairie MF radars, FPI (green and OH lines) and UARS HRDI systems,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1099–1110 (1997).
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M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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I. Oznovich, D. J. McEwen, G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, “Tidal oscillations of the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere in winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4511–4520 (1997).
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G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
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W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
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Miller, D. W.

Moise, A.

Nardi, B.

T. L. Killeen, B. Nardi, P. N. Purcell, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, “Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer-2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1093–1096 (1992).
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Niciejewski, R.

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
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G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
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M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oznovich, I.

I. Oznovich, D. J. McEwen, G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, “Tidal oscillations of the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere in winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4511–4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palo, S.

Y. I. Portnyagin, J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, E. G. Merzlyakov, S. Palo, “The summertime 12-h wind oscillation with zonal wavenumber s = 1 in the lower thermosphere over the South Pole,” Ann. Geophys. 16, 828–837 (1998).

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasturczyk, Z.

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Portnyagin, Y.

G. Hernandez, J. M. Forbes, R. W. Smith, Y. Portnyagin, J. F. Booth, N. Makarov, “Simultaneous mesospheric wind measurements near South Pole by optical and meteor radar methods,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1079–1082 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Portnyagin, Y. I.

Y. I. Portnyagin, J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, E. G. Merzlyakov, S. Palo, “The summertime 12-h wind oscillation with zonal wavenumber s = 1 in the lower thermosphere over the South Pole,” Ann. Geophys. 16, 828–837 (1998).

J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, Y. I. Portnyagin, “First results from the meteor radar at South Pole: a large 12-hour oscillation with zonal wavenumber one,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 3247–3250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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T. L. Killeen, B. Nardi, P. N. Purcell, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, “Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer-2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1093–1096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

T. L. Killeen, B. Nardi, P. N. Purcell, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, “Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer-2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1093–1096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, A. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observation of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, J. M.

G. M. Fisher, T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, P. B. Hays, J. M. Reeves, “Tidal variability of the geomagnetic polar cap mesopause above Resolute Bay,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 573–576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, B. Nardi, P. N. Purcell, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, “Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer-2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1093–1096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y. J.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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Schubert, G.

R. L. Walterscheid, G. Schubert, “A dynamical chemical model of fluctuations in the OH air-glow driven by migrating tides, stationary tides and planetary waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 433–450 (1995).
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Seller, G.

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
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W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Seller, G. G. Shepherd, J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
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G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,431–10,440 (1996).
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G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: Wide angle Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
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R. L. Hillard, G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362–369 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R. J.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Singer, W.

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sivjee, G. G.

I. Oznovich, D. J. McEwen, G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, “Tidal oscillations of the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere in winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4511–4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, G. G. Sivjee, “Very high frequency tides observed in the airglow over Eureka,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3651–3654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, D. J. McEwen, “Planetary wave disturbances in the Arctic winter mesopause over Eureka (80N),” Planet. Space Sci. 42, 973–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

M. D. Burrage, W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, “Intercalibration of HRDI and WINDII wind measurements,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1089–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

G. Hernandez, J. M. Forbes, R. W. Smith, Y. Portnyagin, J. F. Booth, N. Makarov, “Simultaneous mesospheric wind measurements near South Pole by optical and meteor radar methods,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1079–1082 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, “Antarctic high-latitude mesospheric dynamics,” Adv. Space. Res. 16, 71–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Smith, G. Hernandez, “Vertical winds in the thermosphere within the polar cap,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57, 611–620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, J. F. Conner, “Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesopause above South Pole, Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, W. L. Jones, “Large-scale waves in the upper mesosphere at Antarctic high latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1347–1350 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J.

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. Heinselman, J. Sohn, “Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the Arctic,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2045–2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stair, A. T.

Steed, A.

Steen, A.

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, A. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observation of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Symanow, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Optics 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thayer, J. P.

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. Heinselman, J. Sohn, “Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the Arctic,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2045–2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Thayer, T. L. Killeen, “Vorticity and divergence in the high-latitude upper thermosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 701–704 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,431–10,440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Fauliot, G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Observations of the F-region horizontal and vertical winds in the auroral zone,” Ann. Geophys. 11, 17–28 (1993).

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuda, T.

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R. A.

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. C. G.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Walterscheid, R. L.

I. Oznovich, D. J. McEwen, G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, “Tidal oscillations of the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere in winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4511–4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, G. G. Sivjee, “Very high frequency tides observed in the airglow over Eureka,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3651–3654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, G. Schubert, “A dynamical chemical model of fluctuations in the OH air-glow driven by migrating tides, stationary tides and planetary waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 433–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, D. J. McEwen, “Planetary wave disturbances in the Arctic winter mesopause over Eureka (80N),” Planet. Space Sci. 42, 973–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, “Inertio-gravity wave induced accelerations of mean flow having an imposed periodic component: implications for tidal oscillations in the meteor region,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9698–9706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Ward, W. E.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Warren, R. E.

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. Heinselman, J. Sohn, “Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the Arctic,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2045–2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weins, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wickwar, V. B.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Seller, G. G. Shepherd, J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J. R.

Wu, J.

Wu, Q.

G. M. Fisher, T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, P. B. Hays, J. M. Reeves, “Tidal variability of the geomagnetic polar cap mesopause above Resolute Bay,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 573–576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. P.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space. Res. (1)

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, “Antarctic high-latitude mesospheric dynamics,” Adv. Space. Res. 16, 71–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (5)

V. Fauliot, G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Observations of the F-region horizontal and vertical winds in the auroral zone,” Ann. Geophys. 11, 17–28 (1993).

M. D. Burrage, W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, “Intercalibration of HRDI and WINDII wind measurements,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1089–1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Crickmore, “A comparison between vertical winds and divergence in the high-latitude thermosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 11, 728–733 (1993).

C. E. Meek, A. H. Manson, M. D. Burrage, G. Garbe, L. L. Cogger, “Comparisons between Canadian prairie MF radars, FPI (green and OH lines) and UARS HRDI systems,” Ann. Geophys. 15, 1099–1110 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Portnyagin, J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, E. G. Merzlyakov, S. Palo, “The summertime 12-h wind oscillation with zonal wavenumber s = 1 in the lower thermosphere over the South Pole,” Ann. Geophys. 16, 828–837 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Optics (1)

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Optics 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (11)

R. L. Walterscheid, G. G. Sivjee, “Very high frequency tides observed in the airglow over Eureka,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3651–3654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, “Measured vertical motion and converging and diverging horizontal flow of the midlatitude thermosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 84–87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Thayer, T. L. Killeen, “Vorticity and divergence in the high-latitude upper thermosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 701–704 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, J. F. Conner, “Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesopause above South Pole, Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, G. J. Fraser, W. L. Jones, “Mesospheric 12 hour oscillation near South Pole, Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1787–1790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Forbes, N. A. Makarov, Y. I. Portnyagin, “First results from the meteor radar at South Pole: a large 12-hour oscillation with zonal wavenumber one,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 3247–3250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Fisher, T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, P. B. Hays, J. M. Reeves, “Tidal variability of the geomagnetic polar cap mesopause above Resolute Bay,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 573–576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, G. J. Fraser, W. L. Jones, “Large-scale waves in the upper mesosphere at Antarctic high latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1347–1350 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, J. M. Forbes, R. W. Smith, Y. Portnyagin, J. F. Booth, N. Makarov, “Simultaneous mesospheric wind measurements near South Pole by optical and meteor radar methods,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1079–1082 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, B. Nardi, P. N. Purcell, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, “Neutral winds in the lower thermosphere from Dynamics Explorer-2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1093–1096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

R. W. Smith, G. Hernandez, “Vertical winds in the thermosphere within the polar cap,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57, 611–620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (13)

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O1S wind measurement by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,405–10,430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, S. P. Zhang, C. McLandress, R. H. Wiens, “Tidal influence on midlatitude airglow: comparison of satellite and ground-based observations with TIME-GCM predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 14,741–14,751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,431–10,440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattingert, F. Firod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrage, D. A. Gell, P. B. Hays, A. R. Marshall, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, S. J. Franke, D. C. Fritts, P. Hoffman, A. H. Manson, C. MacLandress, R. Niciejewski, F. J. Schmidlin, G. G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,365–10,392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Forbes, “Atmospheric tides. 1. Model description and results for the solar diurnal component,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5222–5240 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Forbes, “Atmospheric tides. 2. The solar and lunar semidiurnal components,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5241–5259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, G. Schubert, “A dynamical chemical model of fluctuations in the OH air-glow driven by migrating tides, stationary tides and planetary waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 433–450 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Walterscheid, “Inertio-gravity wave induced accelerations of mean flow having an imposed periodic component: implications for tidal oscillations in the meteor region,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9698–9706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Francis, “Lower atmospheric gravity modes and their relation to middle-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8289–8295 (1973).
[CrossRef]

I. Oznovich, D. J. McEwen, G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, “Tidal oscillations of the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere in winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4511–4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. Heinselman, J. Sohn, “Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the Arctic,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2045–2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (2)

G. G. Sivjee, R. L. Walterscheid, D. J. McEwen, “Planetary wave disturbances in the Arctic winter mesopause over Eureka (80N),” Planet. Space Sci. 42, 973–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, A. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observation of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1986), pp. 122–149.

J. M. Forbes, Tidal and Planetary Waves, the Upper Mesosphere and Thermosphere: A Review of Experiment and Theory, Geophysical Monograph87, (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1995).

S. Chapman, R. S. Lindzen, Atmospheric Tides (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Map showing the location of the EPCO at Resolute Bay (RES; geographic coordinates, 74.9 °N, 94.9 °W).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General layout of the FPI/CLIO instrument at Resolute Bay.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Circle-to-line conversion by a cone segment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the general layout of the ERWIN. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of wind measurements made by the FPI/CLIO and the ERWIN instruments. Each circle represents one CLIO measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detailed view of FPI/CLIO and ERWIN wind comparisons. CLIO errors for each measurement are plotted. ERWIN measurements have an estimated 4-m/s error.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of hourly binned wind measurements during 22–27 January 1996.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scatterplots of ERWIN and CLIO OH winds from 22–27 January 1996. A linear correlation coefficient is calculated for each component. Diagonal lines are bisectors with unit slope.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left, comparison of zonal wind FPI/CLIO and ERWIN measurements. Right, a detailed plot of winds from 29 to 32 h UT shows a distinct difference in the measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

FPI/CLIO zonal wind measurements for 27 January 1996. There is a distinct difference in the measurements from 30 to 33 h UT.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Instrument Temporal Characteristics

Metrics