Abstract

An infrared thermograph technique with an 8–12-µm spectral range was used to measure transient two-dimensional profiles of liquid (1-propanol) surface temperatures. An IR camera was placed over the liquid, allowing us to observe the fuel surface through propanol vapor. To use this technique, one must know the emissivity of the liquid surface and the IR absorption of both the liquid propanol and the propanol vapor. The emissivity of the liquid propanol was determined with a fine thermocouple temperature measurement, IR absorption with the propanol vapor was calibrated with a blackbody source, and IR absorption with a liquid propanol was theoretically estimated. The accuracy of our infrared thermograph technique proved to be better than 97% in detecting the liquid-surface temperature with a temperature sensitivity of 0.1 °C and a time response of 30 ms.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ito, K. Saito, T. Inamura, “Temperature structure of liquid phase in pool fires supported on water: implication to boilover phenomenon,” J. Heat Transfer 114, 944–949 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Arakawa, K. Saito, W. A. Gruver, “An automated infrared imaging temperature measurement: with application to upward flames spread studies,” Combust. Flame 92, 222–230 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.
  4. C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Upward flame spread along PMMA vertical corner walls, Part II,” Combust. Flame 99, 331–338 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Ross, F. J. Miller, “Detailed experiments of flame spread across deep butanol pools,” in Proceedings of Twenty-sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213, 1996), pp. 1327–1334.
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Siegel, J. R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 3rd ed. (Hemisphere Washington, D.C., 1992).
  9. P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Konishi, S. Naka, A. Ito, K. Saito, “Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8815–8819 (1997).
    [Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Upward flame spread along PMMA vertical corner walls, Part II,” Combust. Flame 99, 331–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. Arakawa, K. Saito, W. A. Gruver, “An automated infrared imaging temperature measurement: with application to upward flames spread studies,” Combust. Flame 92, 222–230 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Ito, K. Saito, T. Inamura, “Temperature structure of liquid phase in pool fires supported on water: implication to boilover phenomenon,” J. Heat Transfer 114, 944–949 (1992).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, A.

A. Arakawa, K. Saito, W. A. Gruver, “An automated infrared imaging temperature measurement: with application to upward flames spread studies,” Combust. Flame 92, 222–230 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.

Crampton, G. P.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Cremers, C. J.

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.

Delichatsios, M. A.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Delichatsios, M. M.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Gruver, W. A.

A. Arakawa, K. Saito, W. A. Gruver, “An automated infrared imaging temperature measurement: with application to upward flames spread studies,” Combust. Flame 92, 222–230 (1993).
[Crossref]

Howell, J. R.

R. Siegel, J. R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 3rd ed. (Hemisphere Washington, D.C., 1992).

Inamura, T.

A. Ito, K. Saito, T. Inamura, “Temperature structure of liquid phase in pool fires supported on water: implication to boilover phenomenon,” J. Heat Transfer 114, 944–949 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ishida, H.

C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Upward flame spread along PMMA vertical corner walls, Part II,” Combust. Flame 99, 331–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Ito, A.

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Konishi, S. Naka, A. Ito, K. Saito, “Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8815–8819 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Ito, K. Saito, T. Inamura, “Temperature structure of liquid phase in pool fires supported on water: implication to boilover phenomenon,” J. Heat Transfer 114, 944–949 (1992).
[Crossref]

Konishi, T.

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Konishi, S. Naka, A. Ito, K. Saito, “Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8815–8819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lougheed, G. D.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Miller, F. J.

H. Ross, F. J. Miller, “Detailed experiments of flame spread across deep butanol pools,” in Proceedings of Twenty-sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213, 1996), pp. 1327–1334.
[Crossref]

Naka, S.

Narumi, A.

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qian, C.

C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Upward flame spread along PMMA vertical corner walls, Part II,” Combust. Flame 99, 331–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Ross, H.

H. Ross, F. J. Miller, “Detailed experiments of flame spread across deep butanol pools,” in Proceedings of Twenty-sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213, 1996), pp. 1327–1334.
[Crossref]

Saito, K.

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Konishi, S. Naka, A. Ito, K. Saito, “Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8815–8819 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Upward flame spread along PMMA vertical corner walls, Part II,” Combust. Flame 99, 331–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Arakawa, K. Saito, W. A. Gruver, “An automated infrared imaging temperature measurement: with application to upward flames spread studies,” Combust. Flame 92, 222–230 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Ito, K. Saito, T. Inamura, “Temperature structure of liquid phase in pool fires supported on water: implication to boilover phenomenon,” J. Heat Transfer 114, 944–949 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Sethna, P. P.

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[Crossref]

Siegel, R.

R. Siegel, J. R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 3rd ed. (Hemisphere Washington, D.C., 1992).

Tashtoush, G.

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

Williams, D.

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Combust. Flame (2)

A. Arakawa, K. Saito, W. A. Gruver, “An automated infrared imaging temperature measurement: with application to upward flames spread studies,” Combust. Flame 92, 222–230 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Upward flame spread along PMMA vertical corner walls, Part II,” Combust. Flame 99, 331–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Heat Transfer (2)

A. Ito, A. Narumi, T. Konishi, G. Tashtoush, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “The measurement of transient two-dimensional profiles of velocity of fuel concentration over liquids,” J. Heat Transfer 121, 413–419 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Ito, K. Saito, T. Inamura, “Temperature structure of liquid phase in pool fires supported on water: implication to boilover phenomenon,” J. Heat Transfer 114, 944–949 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. Siegel, J. R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 3rd ed. (Hemisphere Washington, D.C., 1992).

M. M. Delichatsios, P. Wu, M. A. Delichatsios, G. D. Lougheed, G. P. Crampton, C. Qian, H. Ishida, K. Saito, “Effect of external radiant heat flux on upward fire spread: measurements on plywood and numerical predictions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the International Association for Fire Safety Science (Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, Mass. 02109, 1994).
[Crossref]

H. Ross, F. J. Miller, “Detailed experiments of flame spread across deep butanol pools,” in Proceedings of Twenty-sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213, 1996), pp. 1327–1334.
[Crossref]

C. Qian, A. Arakawa, H. Ishida, K. Saito, C. J. Cremers, “Temperature measurement by infrared images with application to fire research,” in Thermal Conductivity 22, T. W. Tong, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1944), pp. 973–984.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus that was used to measure the emissivity of liquid propanol.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental apparatus that was used to measure the IR absorption of propanol vapor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption coefficient of 1-propanol as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change of transmissivity as a function of film thickness for five wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of the attenuation of the IR ray: (a) absorption of fuel vapor, (b) refraction at the edge of fuel tray, (c) formation of fuel vapor over the fuel tray.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface temperature change in 1-propanol when the heating rate is constant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature profiles measured with the IR camera through propanol fuel vapor and the fuel tray.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical profiles of ln(T e /T w ), ln(T/ T w ), and ln(T/ T e ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vapor concentration of propanol measured by holographic interferometry10 as a function of ln(T/ T e ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmissivity and temperature attenuation as a function of propanol surface temperature.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the temperature measured with the IR camera and that measured with the thermocouple: open circles, uncorrected IR temperature; filled circles, corrected IR temperature.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IλI0λ=expαλhl,
λmaxT=2897.8 μmK,
dIλ=-αλmρI0λdS,
Iλhg=Iλ0exp-0hg hg0αλmρzdz,
ρz=az+ρ0,
Iλhg=Iλ0exp-αλma2 hg2+ρ0hg.
Ifλz=I0λ exp-αλmρzL.
Ieλz=I0λgz,
Iλz=I0λgzexp-αλmρzL.
ρz=-1αλmLlogeIλzI0λ-gz=1αλmLlogeIλzI0λ,
I0=1π σεTw4,
Iez=1π σεTe4z,
Iz=1π σεT4z,
ρz=-4αλmLlogeTzTez.

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