Abstract

An experiment is described that directly compares the degradations, with the number of scattering mean free paths, of two field correlations that may be used to form gates for imaging techniques in scattered light: the correlation of the scattered wave with an unscattered reference wave and the correlation of two wave-vector components of the scattered wave itself. Results for 20-µm polymer spheres show that the latter correlation is consistently larger well into the multiple-scattering regime (up to 10 mean free paths) for wave-vector separations less than at least 50 mm-1 and that the two correlations tend to merge in this scattering regime for larger wave-vector separations.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999

S. Géhant, R. Schirrer, “Multiple light scattering and cavitation in two phase tough polymers,” J. Polymer Sci. B 37, 113–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Hoover, “Optical determination of field angular correlation for transmission through three-dimensional turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1040–1048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perelman, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spatial coherence of forward-scattered light in a turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866–871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. P. Chan, K. Satori, H. Inaba, “Laser imaging through scattering media by enhanced heterodyne detection and speckle averaging using 2D detector array,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1101–1103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, L. Tsang, “Application of angular correlation function of clutter scattering and correlation imaging in target detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1485–1493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Leith, B. G. Hoover, D. S. Dilworth, P. P. Naulleau, “Ensemble-averaged Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing for imaging through turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3643–3650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T.-K. Chan, Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, “Subsurface detection of a buried object using angular correlation function measurement,” Waves Random Media 7, 457–465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

1992

V. M. Agranovich, V. Ya. Chernyak, K. I. Grigorishin, E. I. Ogievetsky, “Time evolution of transient gratings in a nonlinear film above the surface of a disordered medium,” Phys. Lett. A 165, 289–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1988

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

Agranovich, V. M.

V. M. Agranovich, V. Ya. Chernyak, K. I. Grigorishin, E. I. Ogievetsky, “Time evolution of transient gratings in a nonlinear film above the surface of a disordered medium,” Phys. Lett. A 165, 289–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

Arons, E.

Chan, K. P.

K. P. Chan, K. Satori, H. Inaba, “Laser imaging through scattering media by enhanced heterodyne detection and speckle averaging using 2D detector array,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1101–1103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.-K.

T.-K. Chan, Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, “Subsurface detection of a buried object using angular correlation function measurement,” Waves Random Media 7, 457–465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Chernyak, V. Ya.

V. M. Agranovich, V. Ya. Chernyak, K. I. Grigorishin, E. I. Ogievetsky, “Time evolution of transient gratings in a nonlinear film above the surface of a disordered medium,” Phys. Lett. A 165, 289–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

de Mul, F.

W. Steenbergen, M. van Stratum, F. de Mul, J. Greve, “Coherence effects in laser Doppler blood flowmetry,” in Optical Diagnostics of Biological Fluids and Advanced Techniques in Analytical Cytology, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Asakura, R. C. Leif, eds., Proc. SPIE2982, 6–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

Feld, M. S.

Feng, S.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Géhant, S.

S. Géhant, R. Schirrer, “Multiple light scattering and cavitation in two phase tough polymers,” J. Polymer Sci. B 37, 113–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd enlarged ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), Chap. 2.

Greve, J.

W. Steenbergen, M. van Stratum, F. de Mul, J. Greve, “Coherence effects in laser Doppler blood flowmetry,” in Optical Diagnostics of Biological Fluids and Advanced Techniques in Analytical Cytology, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Asakura, R. C. Leif, eds., Proc. SPIE2982, 6–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grigorishin, K. I.

V. M. Agranovich, V. Ya. Chernyak, K. I. Grigorishin, E. I. Ogievetsky, “Time evolution of transient gratings in a nonlinear film above the surface of a disordered medium,” Phys. Lett. A 165, 289–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

Hinklin, T.

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, R. M. Laine, “Ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering CE: alumina nanopowder,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Hoover, B. G.

Inaba, H.

K. P. Chan, K. Satori, H. Inaba, “Laser imaging through scattering media by enhanced heterodyne detection and speckle averaging using 2D detector array,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1101–1103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

T.-K. Chan, Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, “Subsurface detection of a buried object using angular correlation function measurement,” Waves Random Media 7, 457–465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, IEEE/OUP Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory (IEEE, Piscataway/Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1997), Chap. 14.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacobson, J. M.

Kane, C.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuga, Y.

T.-K. Chan, Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, “Subsurface detection of a buried object using angular correlation function measurement,” Waves Random Media 7, 457–465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laine, R. M.

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, R. M. Laine, “Ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering CE: alumina nanopowder,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Lee, P. A.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Lopez, J.

Marchand, E. W.

Masri, R.

Naulleau, P. P.

Ogievetsky, E. I.

V. M. Agranovich, V. Ya. Chernyak, K. I. Grigorishin, E. I. Ogievetsky, “Time evolution of transient gratings in a nonlinear film above the surface of a disordered medium,” Phys. Lett. A 165, 289–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

Rand, S. C.

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, R. M. Laine, “Ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering CE: alumina nanopowder,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Rudd, J.

Satori, K.

K. P. Chan, K. Satori, H. Inaba, “Laser imaging through scattering media by enhanced heterodyne detection and speckle averaging using 2D detector array,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1101–1103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schirrer, R.

S. Géhant, R. Schirrer, “Multiple light scattering and cavitation in two phase tough polymers,” J. Polymer Sci. B 37, 113–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C.

T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Shih, M.

Steenbergen, W.

W. Steenbergen, M. van Stratum, F. de Mul, J. Greve, “Coherence effects in laser Doppler blood flowmetry,” in Optical Diagnostics of Biological Fluids and Advanced Techniques in Analytical Cytology, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Asakura, R. C. Leif, eds., Proc. SPIE2982, 6–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P. C.

Swanson, E. A.

Tsang, L.

G. Zhang, L. Tsang, “Application of angular correlation function of clutter scattering and correlation imaging in target detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1485–1493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

van Stratum, M.

W. Steenbergen, M. van Stratum, F. de Mul, J. Greve, “Coherence effects in laser Doppler blood flowmetry,” in Optical Diagnostics of Biological Fluids and Advanced Techniques in Analytical Cytology, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Asakura, R. C. Leif, eds., Proc. SPIE2982, 6–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, R. M. Laine, “Ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering CE: alumina nanopowder,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, L. Tsang, “Application of angular correlation function of clutter scattering and correlation imaging in target detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1485–1493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

K. P. Chan, K. Satori, H. Inaba, “Laser imaging through scattering media by enhanced heterodyne detection and speckle averaging using 2D detector array,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1101–1103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

G. Zhang, L. Tsang, “Application of angular correlation function of clutter scattering and correlation imaging in target detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1485–1493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Polymer Sci. B

S. Géhant, R. Schirrer, “Multiple light scattering and cavitation in two phase tough polymers,” J. Polymer Sci. B 37, 113–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

V. M. Agranovich, V. Ya. Chernyak, K. I. Grigorishin, E. I. Ogievetsky, “Time evolution of transient gratings in a nonlinear film above the surface of a disordered medium,” Phys. Lett. A 165, 289–301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waves Random Media

T.-K. Chan, Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, “Subsurface detection of a buried object using angular correlation function measurement,” Waves Random Media 7, 457–465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, IEEE/OUP Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory (IEEE, Piscataway/Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1997), Chap. 14.

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, R. M. Laine, “Ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering CE: alumina nanopowder,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd enlarged ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), Chap. 2.

W. Steenbergen, M. van Stratum, F. de Mul, J. Greve, “Coherence effects in laser Doppler blood flowmetry,” in Optical Diagnostics of Biological Fluids and Advanced Techniques in Analytical Cytology, A. V. Priezzhev, T. Asakura, R. C. Leif, eds., Proc. SPIE2982, 6–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration: TP, Thompson prism; ND, variable neutral density filter; SF, spatial filter; Lo, 100-mm lens; Lr, 300-mm lens; Ld, 100-mm lens; D, photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity fringe modulations that reveal underlying field correlations, in unscattered light. (a) Coherence modulation observed when the reference wave is blocked. (b) Reference modulation observed when arm 2 of the object wave interferometer is blocked.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gradual loss of field correlations with increasing microsphere concentration. D is the number of mean free paths within the suspension. (a) D = 0, (b) D = 4.2, (c) D = 5.75, (d) D = 8.8. Δk i = 2π mm-1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fringe visibilities VJ (solid) and V C (dashed) as functions of spatial frequency Δk i and the number of mean free paths D in a microsphere suspension. Error bars indicate standard deviations for averages over sets of speckled fringe patterns.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

=exp-D,
Jks1, ks2; ki1, ki2=Es1Es2*,
VJ=ks1ks2ks1 Jks1, ks2; ki1, ki2dks1dks2 Jks, ks; ki1, ki2dks,
C=ErEs*,
VC=|C|Io.

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