Abstract

We present directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) and bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of a carbon aerogel in the 2.5–14.3-µm infrared spectral region. The measured DHR is 1.0–1.2 ± 0.2% throughout the 2.5–14.3-µm infrared wavelength region. When the incidence angle is increased from 8° to 30° off normal, the DHR increases by only 0.2%; i.e., performance does not significantly degrade as a result of illumination by off-normal infrared radiation. BRDF measurements, obtained at a wavelength of 10.6 µm, indicate that carbon aerogel exhibits Lambertian behavior. The carbon aerogel’s BRDF value of 4 × 10-3 sr-1 is consistent with its measured DHR values. Gas adsorption and transmission-electron microscopy indicate a structure dominated by particles and pores of ≤10-nm dimension. Scanning-electron microscopy reveals surface roughness on a scale of tens of nanometers. The DHR and BRDF of carbon aerogel compare favorably with those of Martin Black and Rippey, two widely used nonreflective materials.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.
  2. M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Becker, R. Fettig, W. Ruppel, “Optical and electrical properties of black gold layers in the far infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 431–445 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. W. Pekala, “Organic aerogels from the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 3221–3227 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Pekala, D. W. Schaefer, “Structure of organic aerogels. 1. Morphology and Scaling,” Macromolecules 26, 5487–5493 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Lockheed Martin Astronautics Group, Mail Stop B3085, P.O. Box 179, Denver, Colo. 80201; Attn: Dan Sheld.
  10. Rippey Corporation, 5000 Hillsdale Circle, El Dorado Hills, Calif. 95762.
  11. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).
  12. S. M. Pompea, D. F. Shepard, S. Anderson, “The effect of elevated temperatures on the scattering properties of an optical black surface at 0.6328 and 10.6 micrometers,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault ed., Proc. SPIE967, 286–291 (1988).
  13. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), p. 202.
  14. R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, “Carbon aerogels and xerogels,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 270, 3–14 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Data are available from C. I. Merzbacher (merzbacher@nrl.navy.mil).
  16. A. L. Shumway, D. F. Shepard, R. E. Clement, P. McKenna, “Temperature effects on reflectance and emittance measurements of Martin Black and Enhanced Martin Black surfaces,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 386–405 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, R. Fettig, W. Ruppel, “Optical and electrical properties of black gold layers in the far infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 431–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. W. Pekala, D. W. Schaefer, “Structure of organic aerogels. 1. Morphology and Scaling,” Macromolecules 26, 5487–5493 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, “Carbon aerogels and xerogels,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 270, 3–14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. W. Pekala, “Organic aerogels from the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 3221–3227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Alviso, C. T.

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, “Carbon aerogels and xerogels,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 270, 3–14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S.

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Shepard, S. Anderson, “The effect of elevated temperatures on the scattering properties of an optical black surface at 0.6328 and 10.6 micrometers,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault ed., Proc. SPIE967, 286–291 (1988).

Becker, W.

W. Becker, R. Fettig, W. Ruppel, “Optical and electrical properties of black gold layers in the far infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 431–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breault, R. P.

S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.

Brown, D. P.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clement, R. E.

A. L. Shumway, D. F. Shepard, R. E. Clement, P. McKenna, “Temperature effects on reflectance and emittance measurements of Martin Black and Enhanced Martin Black surfaces,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 386–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Costantino, J.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fettig, R.

W. Becker, R. Fettig, W. Ruppel, “Optical and electrical properties of black gold layers in the far infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 431–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Henning, Th.

C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Hulsey, S. S.

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, C.

C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, T. R.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kong, F. M.

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Lynn, W. F.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, P.

A. L. Shumway, D. F. Shepard, R. E. Clement, P. McKenna, “Temperature effects on reflectance and emittance measurements of Martin Black and Enhanced Martin Black surfaces,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 386–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Pekala, R. W.

R. W. Pekala, D. W. Schaefer, “Structure of organic aerogels. 1. Morphology and Scaling,” Macromolecules 26, 5487–5493 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, “Carbon aerogels and xerogels,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 270, 3–14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pekala, “Organic aerogels from the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 3221–3227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Persky, M. J.

M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pompea, S. M.

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Shepard, S. Anderson, “The effect of elevated temperatures on the scattering properties of an optical black surface at 0.6328 and 10.6 micrometers,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault ed., Proc. SPIE967, 286–291 (1988).

S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Ruppel, W.

W. Becker, R. Fettig, W. Ruppel, “Optical and electrical properties of black gold layers in the far infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 431–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, D. W.

R. W. Pekala, D. W. Schaefer, “Structure of organic aerogels. 1. Morphology and Scaling,” Macromolecules 26, 5487–5493 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schlogl, R.

C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. W.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seaman, C. L.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shemano, W. C.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, D. F.

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Shepard, S. Anderson, “The effect of elevated temperatures on the scattering properties of an optical black surface at 0.6328 and 10.6 micrometers,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault ed., Proc. SPIE967, 286–291 (1988).

A. L. Shumway, D. F. Shepard, R. E. Clement, P. McKenna, “Temperature effects on reflectance and emittance measurements of Martin Black and Enhanced Martin Black surfaces,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 386–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shumway, A. L.

A. L. Shumway, D. F. Shepard, R. E. Clement, P. McKenna, “Temperature effects on reflectance and emittance measurements of Martin Black and Enhanced Martin Black surfaces,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 386–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snail, K. A.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spillecke, O.

C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), p. 202.

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

W. Becker, R. Fettig, W. Ruppel, “Optical and electrical properties of black gold layers in the far infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 431–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

R. W. Pekala, “Organic aerogels from the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 3221–3227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, F. M. Kong, S. S. Hulsey, “Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 90–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Jäger, Th. Henning, R. Schlogl, O. Spillecke, “Spectral properties of carbon black,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258, 161–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

R. W. Pekala, D. W. Schaefer, “Structure of organic aerogels. 1. Morphology and Scaling,” Macromolecules 26, 5487–5493 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

R. W. Pekala, C. T. Alviso, “Carbon aerogels and xerogels,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 270, 3–14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. (1)

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 160, (1977).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lockheed Martin Astronautics Group, Mail Stop B3085, P.O. Box 179, Denver, Colo. 80201; Attn: Dan Sheld.

Rippey Corporation, 5000 Hillsdale Circle, El Dorado Hills, Calif. 95762.

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Shepard, S. Anderson, “The effect of elevated temperatures on the scattering properties of an optical black surface at 0.6328 and 10.6 micrometers,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault ed., Proc. SPIE967, 286–291 (1988).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), p. 202.

Data are available from C. I. Merzbacher (merzbacher@nrl.navy.mil).

A. L. Shumway, D. F. Shepard, R. E. Clement, P. McKenna, “Temperature effects on reflectance and emittance measurements of Martin Black and Enhanced Martin Black surfaces,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 386–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DHR of carbon aerogel, Martin Black, and Rippey. All measurements were obtained at an incidence angle of 8° off normal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DHR on an expanded y-axis scale of carbon aerogel (CA), Martin Black (MB), and Rippey at incidence angles of 8° and 30°. The solid lines at DHR = 1% are aids for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BRDF of carbon aerogel, Martin Black, and Rippey obtained at a wavelength of 10.6 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning-electron and (b) transmission-electron microscopy images of carbon aerogel.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DHRsampleθ=ρsampleθ×τsampleθ, ϕρstdθ×τstdθ, ϕ×DHRstd8°×Qθ,
BRDFθi, θs, ϕs-ϕi=Ps/ΩsPi cos θs,
DHRθi=02πdϕ 0π/2BRDFθi, θs, ϕs-ϕi×sin θs cos θsdθs,

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