Abstract

White-light vertical scanning interferometry is a well-established technique for retrieving the three-dimensional shapes of small objects, but it can measure only areas as big as the field of view of the instrument. For bigger fields a stitching algorithm must be applied, which often can be a source of errors. A technique in which the object is scanned laterally in front of an instrument with a tilted coherence plane is described. It permits measurements at higher speeds while measurement accuracy is retained and eliminates the need for stitching in one direction. Experimental confirmation is provided.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  17. K. G. Larkin, “Efficient nonlinear algorithm for envelope detection in white light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 832–843 (1996).
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1996 (1)

1995 (1)

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

G. S. Kino, S. S. C. Chim, “Mirau correlation microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3775–3783 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Tatam, J. C. Davies, C. H. Buckberry, J. D. C. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Z. Ji, M. C. Leu, “Design of optical triangulation devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 335–338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Recent advances in interferometric optical testing,” Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 21(11) , 118–132 (1985).

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

1965 (1)

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wave-front construction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ai, C.

C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Elmsford, N.Y., 1987).

Brophy, C. P.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Buckberry, C. H.

R. P. Tatam, J. C. Davies, C. H. Buckberry, J. D. C. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Caber, P. J.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Chim, S. S. C.

Cohen, D. K.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Creath, K.

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Recent advances in interferometric optical testing,” Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 21(11) , 118–132 (1985).

Davies, J. C.

R. P. Tatam, J. C. Davies, C. H. Buckberry, J. D. C. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deck, L.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dresler, T.

Flourney, P. A.

Haines, K. A.

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wave-front construction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Harding, K. G.

K. G. Harding, R. Tait, “Moiré techniques applied to automated inspection of machined parts,” in Proceedings of the SME Vision 86 Conference (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Detroit, Mich., 1986), n.p.

Häusler, G.

Hildebrand, B. P.

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wave-front construction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Z.

Z. Ji, M. C. Leu, “Design of optical triangulation devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 335–338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

R. P. Tatam, J. C. Davies, C. H. Buckberry, J. D. C. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

K. Matsui, S. Kawata, “Fringe-scanning white-light microscope for surface profile measurement and material identification,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 124–132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Larkin, K. G.

Leu, M. C.

Z. Ji, M. C. Leu, “Design of optical triangulation devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 335–338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, K.

K. Matsui, S. Kawata, “Fringe-scanning white-light microscope for surface profile measurement and material identification,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 124–132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McClure, R. W.

Novak, E. L.

C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).

Schmit, J.

J. C. Wyant, J. Schmit, “Large field of view, high spatial resolution, surface measurements,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference On Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Chalmers U. Technol. Press, Göteborg, Sweden, 1997), pp. 294–301.

Slama, C. C.

C. C. Slama, Manual of Photogrammetry, 4th ed. (American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, Va., 1980).

Tait, R.

K. G. Harding, R. Tait, “Moiré techniques applied to automated inspection of machined parts,” in Proceedings of the SME Vision 86 Conference (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Detroit, Mich., 1986), n.p.

Takasaki, H.

Tatam, R. P.

R. P. Tatam, J. C. Davies, C. H. Buckberry, J. D. C. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Venzke, H.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Elmsford, N.Y., 1987).

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Recent advances in interferometric optical testing,” Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 21(11) , 118–132 (1985).

J. C. Wyant, J. Schmit, “Large field of view, high spatial resolution, surface measurements,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference On Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Chalmers U. Technol. Press, Göteborg, Sweden, 1997), pp. 294–301.

Wyntjes, G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Focus/Electro-Optics (1)

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Recent advances in interferometric optical testing,” Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 21(11) , 118–132 (1985).

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

R. P. Tatam, J. C. Davies, C. H. Buckberry, J. D. C. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji, M. C. Leu, “Design of optical triangulation devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 335–338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wave-front construction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. C. Wyant, J. Schmit, “Large field of view, high spatial resolution, surface measurements,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference On Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Chalmers U. Technol. Press, Göteborg, Sweden, 1997), pp. 294–301.

C. C. Slama, Manual of Photogrammetry, 4th ed. (American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, Va., 1980).

K. G. Harding, R. Tait, “Moiré techniques applied to automated inspection of machined parts,” in Proceedings of the SME Vision 86 Conference (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Detroit, Mich., 1986), n.p.

K. Matsui, S. Kawata, “Fringe-scanning white-light microscope for surface profile measurement and material identification,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 124–132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

WYKO NT3300 Optical Profiler, brochure (Veeco Process Metrology, Tucson, Ariz., 1999).

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Elmsford, N.Y., 1987).

C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a vertical-scanning white-light interferometer based on a Twymann–Green interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical correlogram from a single pixel in the vertical-scanning mode. The signal shown was obtained by subtraction of the intensity in a pixel in two consecutive frames. The vertical scale is in arbitrary units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of a lateral scanning interferometer based on a Twymann–Green interferometer. The optical setup is tilted in the xz plane with respect to the surface normal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Details of the lateral scanning interferometry principle. As the object is scanned through the tilted coherence plane, different parts (points P and Q) intersect at different times. Top, signals read from points P and Q during their motion across the field of view. In the time period t 0t 1 the intensity read from both point locations is constant. At time t 1 point P enters the coherence length of the light source and the intensity at this location is modulated until it moves out at time t 4. Similarly, point Q is modulated at times t 3t 6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lateral speed of the stage. A, Point P on the object is imaged onto pixel n in the CCD plane (point P′). During the time of one frame (B) the stage has moved the object a distance dx; the image of point P is now projected onto pixel n + 1. The previous positions of point P and P′ are hatch marked.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power spectral density graphs of intensity profiles for no filter and for a 40-µm bandwidth filter. The results were averaged over 50 lines. The large bandwidth filter naturally has a much wider spectrum; therefore the precision in finding the peak is lower. The frequency 0.25 on the lateral axis corresponds to 4 pixels of period.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Result of measurement of an 8.48-µm calibrated step. Note that the lettering is actually not calibrated as part of the step standard. The total peak-to-valley value is slightly larger than the step height because there are a few pixels in the edge area.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profile map of a magnetic head slider bar obtained with the LSI setup. The depth of the slider pattern is of the order of 6 µm. Note the overall bow of the surface, which would be difficult to reproduce accurately with the stitching procedure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ripple in the results produced by undersampling of the fringes. The amplitude of the error is of the order of 150 nm, as can be seen in the vertical and horizontal cross sections at the right.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Magnification of a part of the letter A in a step-height measurement with the stage’s vertical speed nonzero. The stage misalignment in the y direction caused blurring of the edge of the pattern.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Comparison of Scanning Ranges for Several CCD Resolutionsa

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Table 2 Comparison of Scanning Speed of the LSI for Several Frame Rates and Optical Magnification of the WYKO NT-2000 Profilometer

Equations (4)

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Ix, y, z=ax, y+bx, ycz-2hx, y×cos2πw0z-αx, y,
p=λΔϕ2×360°.
α=arcsinp/Sx,
Vx=FSx=FScxMx,

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