Abstract

We propose interferometric reflectometry in which a sinusoidal wavelength-scanning tunable laser diode is used to detect positions and profiles of multiple reflecting surfaces. An objective signal extracted from an interference signal contains modulation amplitude Z and phase α, which are related to the positions and profiles, respectively, of multiple reflecting surfaces. By using values of the objective signal at special times, we can produce an image intensity that shows where the reflecting surfaces exist. To obtain exact values of Z or values of α, we estimated the objective signal by using a conjugate gradient method. Experimental results show that a resolution of two-optical-path difference (OPD) in the image intensity is ∼60 µm, and the final OPD precisions are 2 and 8 µm for two and three reflecting surfaces, respectively, for a wavelength-scanning width of 7 nm. Profiles of the front and rear surfaces of a silica glass plate with a thickness of 20 µm have been measured with a precision of ∼10 nm.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanston, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, “Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 13, 186–188 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive indices of multiple layers by a low-coherence confocal interference microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1942–1944 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, K. Hotate, “Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514–516 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Teramura, K. Suzuki, M. Suzuki, F. Kannari, “Low-coherence interferometry with synthesis of coherence function,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5974–5980 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Funaba, N. Tanno, H. Ito, “Multimode-laser reflectometer with a multichannel wavelength detector and its application,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8919–8928 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Yoshimura, H. Hiratuka, E. Kido, K. Yamada, “Optical coherence tomography in scattering media using a continuous wave tunable laser diode,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jupter, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 207–214 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. Sasaki, T. Kuwahara, R. Hara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometeric reflectometry,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 618–621 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. Sasaki, T. Yoshida, T. Suzuki, “Double sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for distance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3617–3621 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, “Detection of time-varying intensity distribution with CCD image sensors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2124–2126 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, K. Hotate, “Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514–516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Funaba, N. Tanno, H. Ito, “Multimode-laser reflectometer with a multichannel wavelength detector and its application,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8919–8928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (3)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sasaki, T. Yoshida, T. Suzuki, “Double sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for distance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3617–3621 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

Bonner, R. F.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, “Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 13, 186–188 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanston, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukano, T.

Funaba, T.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, R.

O. Sasaki, T. Kuwahara, R. Hara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometeric reflectometry,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 618–621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, Z.

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, K. Hotate, “Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514–516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

Hiratuka, H.

T. Yoshimura, H. Hiratuka, E. Kido, K. Yamada, “Optical coherence tomography in scattering media using a continuous wave tunable laser diode,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jupter, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 207–214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hotate, K.

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, K. Hotate, “Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514–516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

Izatt, J. A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kannari, F.

Kido, E.

T. Yoshimura, H. Hiratuka, E. Kido, K. Yamada, “Optical coherence tomography in scattering media using a continuous wave tunable laser diode,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jupter, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 207–214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kulhavy, M.

Kuwahara, T.

O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, T. Kuwahara, R. Hara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometeric reflectometry,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 618–621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lexer, F.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, H.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mengedoht, K.

Mitsuyama, T.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mukohzaka, N.

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, K. Hotate, “Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514–516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohmi, M.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, H.

Owen, G. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, O.

O. Sasaki, T. Yoshida, T. Suzuki, “Double sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for distance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3617–3621 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, “Detection of time-varying intensity distribution with CCD image sensors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2124–2126 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, T. Kuwahara, R. Hara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometeric reflectometry,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 618–621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

Suzuki, M.

Suzuki, T.

O. Sasaki, T. Yoshida, T. Suzuki, “Double sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for distance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3617–3621 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, T. Kuwahara, R. Hara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometeric reflectometry,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 618–621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanston, E. A.

Tajiri, H.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 996–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanno, N.

Tearney, G. J.

Teramura, Y.

Tsuji, K.

O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, W.

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Yamada, K.

T. Yoshimura, H. Hiratuka, E. Kido, K. Yamada, “Optical coherence tomography in scattering media using a continuous wave tunable laser diode,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jupter, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 207–214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yoshida, T.

Yoshimura, T.

T. Yoshimura, H. Hiratuka, E. Kido, K. Yamada, “Optical coherence tomography in scattering media using a continuous wave tunable laser diode,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jupter, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 207–214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, K. Hotate, “Selective image extraction by synthesis of the coherence function using two-dimensional optical lock-in amplifier with microchannel spatial light modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514–516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. Yoshimura, H. Hiratuka, E. Kido, K. Yamada, “Optical coherence tomography in scattering media using a continuous wave tunable laser diode,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. O. Jupter, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 207–214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, T. Kuwahara, R. Hara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometeric reflectometry,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 618–621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, K. Tsuji, S. Sato, T. Kuwahara, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometers,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3478, 37–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometric reflectometer: PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PD, photodiode; A/D, analog-to-digital.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the SWS TLD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Objective signal S b (t) extracted from the interference signal detected for a vinyl sheet with two surfaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image intensity I(z) obtained from objective signal S b (t) of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Values of objective function B versus number of iterations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Value of A versus number of iterations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimated signal Ŝ b (t) almost equal to objective signal S b (t) of Fig. 3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Values of for the two surfaces, A and B, measured every time the object was displaced such that the change ΔL in the OPD increased by 10 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Values of for two surfaces, A and B, measured at intervals of 10 s.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Image intensity I(z) obtained for the three surfaces, A, B, and C, of a vinyl sheet.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Values of for the three surfaces, A, B, and C, measured at intervals of 10 s.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Objective signal S b (t) extracted from the interference signal detected for a silica glass plate with thickness of 20 µm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Image intensity I(z) obtained from objective signal S b (t) of Fig. 12.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured profiles of (a) the front surface and (b) the rear surface of the silica glass plate.

Equations (14)

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St=AA cosZc cosωct+θ+ZA cosωbt+αA+AB cosZc cosωct+θ+ZB cosωbt+αB,
ZA=WLA,  ZB=WLB,  W=2πb/λ02.
FcosZB cosωbt+αA=0,  FsinZB cosωbt+αB=0,  |ω|ωc/2,
F1ω+ωc=-J1ZcexpjθFAA sinZA cosωbt+αA+AB sinZB cosωbt+αB,  |ω|ωc/2,
Sbt=AA sinZA cosωbt+αA+AB sinZB cosωbt+αB.
Z cosωbti=-Z+π/2i-1,  i=1, 2, 3, .
Sbti=sinγ+π/2ZA/Zi-1, i=1, 2, 3, ,
Sbt1=Sbt5==sin γ,  Sbt2=Sbt6==-cos γZA/Z=3, 7, cos γZA/Z=1, 5, ,  Sbt3=Sbt7==-sin γ,  Sbt4=Sbt8==cos γZA/Z=3, 7, -cos γZA/Z=1, 5, .
Sbt1=Sbt3=Sbt5=Sbt7==sin γ,  Sbt2=Sbt4=Sbt6=Sbt8==-sin γ.
Sbti=sin γ,  i=1, 2, 3, .
IL=1/M|Sbt1-Sbt3+Sbt5-Sbt7+|2+1/M|Sbt2-Sbt4+Sbt6-Sbt8+|2,
Sˆbt=AˆA sinZˆA cosωbt+αˆA+AˆB sinZˆB cosωbt+αˆB
B=n=1N |Sbtn-Sˆbtn|2,
rA=λ0/4παA,  rB=λ0/4πnRnR-1αA+αB,

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