Abstract

Head-mounted projective displays (HMPD’s) are a novel type of head-mounted display. A HMPD consists of a miniature projection lens mounted upon the user’s head and retroreflective sheeting material placed strategically in the environment. First, the imaging concept of a HMPD is reviewed and its potential advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The design and a bench prototype implementation are then presented. Finally, the effects of retroreflective materials on the imaging properties and the optical properties of HMPD’s are comprehensively investigated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  2. A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.
  3. J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).
  4. J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “A comparison of optical and video see-through head-mounted displays,” in Fundamentals of Wearable Computers, W. Barfield, T. Caudell, eds. (Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, Mahwah, N. J., 2000), (to be published).
  5. C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, J. T. Kajiya, ed. (ACM, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.
  6. J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeon’s critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality ’98, J. D. Westwood, H. M. Hoffman, D. Stredney, S. J. Weghorst eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998), pp. 246–251.
  8. J. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent5,621,572 (15April1997).
  9. H. Hua, D. Poizat, A. Girardot, J. P. Rolland, “Projective head-mounted displays: engineering study and design,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Jose, Calif., 26–30 September 1999).
  10. D. Poizat, J. P. Rolland, “Use of retroreflective sheets in optical system design,” (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 1998).
  11. H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, “Design and engineering implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Urbana, Ill., 30 April–2 May 2000.
  12. W. C. Gogel, J. D. Tietz, “Relative cues and absolute distance perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 321–328 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers, Binocular Vision and Steropsis, Vol. 29 of Oxford Psychological Series (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).
  15. J. P. Rolland, A. Yoshida, L. Davis, J. H. Reif, “High-resolution inset head-mounted display,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4183–4193 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Marran, C. Schor, “Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems and solutions,” Hum. Factors 37, 382–388 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. P. Rolland, M. Krueger, A. Goon, “Multifocal planes head-mounted displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3209–3215 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Siderov, R. S. Harwerth, “Precision of stereoscopic depth perception from double images,” Vision Res. 33, 1553–1560 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Marran, C. Schor, “Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems and solutions,” Hum. Factors 37, 382–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).

J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. Siderov, R. S. Harwerth, “Precision of stereoscopic depth perception from double images,” Vision Res. 33, 1553–1560 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

W. C. Gogel, J. D. Tietz, “Relative cues and absolute distance perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 321–328 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ariely, D.

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).

Burdea, G.

G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Chen, D. T.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Coiffet, P.

G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Cruz-Neira, C.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, J. T. Kajiya, ed. (ACM, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

Davis, L.

DeFanti, T. A.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, J. T. Kajiya, ed. (ACM, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

Fergason, J.

J. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent5,621,572 (15April1997).

Fuchs, H.

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “A comparison of optical and video see-through head-mounted displays,” in Fundamentals of Wearable Computers, W. Barfield, T. Caudell, eds. (Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, Mahwah, N. J., 2000), (to be published).

Gao, C.

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, “Design and engineering implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Urbana, Ill., 30 April–2 May 2000.

Garrett, W. E.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Gibson, W.

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).

Girardot, A.

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, “Design and engineering implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Urbana, Ill., 30 April–2 May 2000.

H. Hua, D. Poizat, A. Girardot, J. P. Rolland, “Projective head-mounted displays: engineering study and design,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Jose, Calif., 26–30 September 1999).

Gogel, W. C.

W. C. Gogel, J. D. Tietz, “Relative cues and absolute distance perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 321–328 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goon, A.

Hancock, D.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harwerth, R. S.

J. Siderov, R. S. Harwerth, “Precision of stereoscopic depth perception from double images,” Vision Res. 33, 1553–1560 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirota, G.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Howard, I. P.

I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers, Binocular Vision and Steropsis, Vol. 29 of Oxford Psychological Series (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).

Hua, H.

H. Hua, D. Poizat, A. Girardot, J. P. Rolland, “Projective head-mounted displays: engineering study and design,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Jose, Calif., 26–30 September 1999).

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, “Design and engineering implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Urbana, Ill., 30 April–2 May 2000.

Krueger, M.

Livingston, M.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Marran, L.

L. Marran, C. Schor, “Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems and solutions,” Hum. Factors 37, 382–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mon-Williams, M.

J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsons, J.

J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeon’s critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality ’98, J. D. Westwood, H. M. Hoffman, D. Stredney, S. J. Weghorst eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998), pp. 246–251.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, D.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, D. Poizat, A. Girardot, J. P. Rolland, “Projective head-mounted displays: engineering study and design,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Jose, Calif., 26–30 September 1999).

D. Poizat, J. P. Rolland, “Use of retroreflective sheets in optical system design,” (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 1998).

Reif, J. H.

Rogers, B. J.

I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers, Binocular Vision and Steropsis, Vol. 29 of Oxford Psychological Series (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).

Rolland, J. P.

J. P. Rolland, M. Krueger, A. Goon, “Multifocal planes head-mounted displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3209–3215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, A. Yoshida, L. Davis, J. H. Reif, “High-resolution inset head-mounted display,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4183–4193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “A comparison of optical and video see-through head-mounted displays,” in Fundamentals of Wearable Computers, W. Barfield, T. Caudell, eds. (Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, Mahwah, N. J., 2000), (to be published).

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Poizat, J. P. Rolland, “Use of retroreflective sheets in optical system design,” (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 1998).

H. Hua, D. Poizat, A. Girardot, J. P. Rolland, “Projective head-mounted displays: engineering study and design,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Jose, Calif., 26–30 September 1999).

J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeon’s critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality ’98, J. D. Westwood, H. M. Hoffman, D. Stredney, S. J. Weghorst eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998), pp. 246–251.

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, “Design and engineering implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Urbana, Ill., 30 April–2 May 2000.

Rushton, S.

J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandin, D. J.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, J. T. Kajiya, ed. (ACM, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

Schor, C.

L. Marran, C. Schor, “Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems and solutions,” Hum. Factors 37, 382–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siderov, J.

J. Siderov, R. S. Harwerth, “Precision of stereoscopic depth perception from double images,” Vision Res. 33, 1553–1560 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

State, A.

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

Tietz, J. D.

W. C. Gogel, J. D. Tietz, “Relative cues and absolute distance perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 321–328 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wann, J.

J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Hum. Factors (1)

L. Marran, C. Schor, “Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems and solutions,” Hum. Factors 37, 382–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

W. C. Gogel, J. D. Tietz, “Relative cues and absolute distance perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 28, 321–328 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. (1)

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 4, 24–49 (1995).

Vision Res. (2)

J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, “Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments,” Vision Res. 35, 2731–2736 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siderov, R. S. Harwerth, “Precision of stereoscopic depth perception from double images,” Vision Res. 33, 1553–1560 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

I. P. Howard, B. J. Rogers, Binocular Vision and Steropsis, Vol. 29 of Oxford Psychological Series (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).

G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).

A. State, G. Hirota, D. T. Chen, W. E. Garrett, M. Livingston, “Superior augmented-reality registration by integrating landmark tracking and magnetic tracking,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphic Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, H. Rushmeier, ed. (ACM, New York, 1996), pp. 429–438.

J. P. Rolland, H. Fuchs, “A comparison of optical and video see-through head-mounted displays,” in Fundamentals of Wearable Computers, W. Barfield, T. Caudell, eds. (Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, Mahwah, N. J., 2000), (to be published).

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, J. T. Kajiya, ed. (ACM, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.

J. P. Rolland, J. Parsons, D. Poizat, D. Hancock, “Conformal optics for 3D visualization,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 760–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Parsons, J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeon’s critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality ’98, J. D. Westwood, H. M. Hoffman, D. Stredney, S. J. Weghorst eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998), pp. 246–251.

J. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent5,621,572 (15April1997).

H. Hua, D. Poizat, A. Girardot, J. P. Rolland, “Projective head-mounted displays: engineering study and design,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Jose, Calif., 26–30 September 1999).

D. Poizat, J. P. Rolland, “Use of retroreflective sheets in optical system design,” (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 1998).

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, “Design and engineering implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Urbana, Ill., 30 April–2 May 2000.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging concept of conventional HMD’s: (a) immersive HMD, (b) optical STHMD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging concept of HMPD’s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Behavior of reflective surfaces: (a) diffusing surface, (b) reflective surface, (c) retroreflective surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical layout, performance, and optomechanical design. (a) optical layout, (b) MTF of the designed optics, (c) mechanical assembly, (d) 3D optomechanical modeling.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image from the bench prototype (original in color).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Definition of entrance and observation angles of retroreflective materials: (a) entrance angle, (b) observation angle, (c) cone angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Microstructure of retroreflective samples.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement of entrance angles of four samples: (a) measurement setup, (b) entrance angles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Imaging properties of retroreflective samples (a)–(d) of Fig. 7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Illustration of sign assumption in terms of how reflected rays are situated with respect to the incident rays.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effects of observation angle: (a) noncollimated image, (b) collimated image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effects of cone angle: (a) noncollimated image, (b) collimated image.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Illustration of depth of field for the HMPD: (a) screen coincident with the projection plane, (b) screen in front of the projection plane, (c) screen behind the projection plane.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Specifications of the Bench Prototype

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ωo=aωe,  θ=cωe,
tan ωe0=HL,  tan ωe1=H-ReL,  tan ωe2=H+ReL,
Dx=De1-lL+2lHL1-tan cωe1tan cωe0,  leo=l[tan ωe0-tancωe0]tancωe0.
H=Rx tancωe0tancωe0-tancωe1=L tancωe0,
ΔH=Re tan ωe0tan ωe0-tan ωe1-Rx tancωe0tancωe0-tancωe1=L tan ωe0-L tancωe0,
L=Retan ωe0-tan ωe1,  L=Rxtancωe0-tancωe1,  Rx=Dx/2.
ΔL=Retan ωe0-tan ωe1-Rxtancωe0-tancωe1.
ye=fe tancωe,  Δye=fetan ωe-tancωe,
ΔLc=RAtancωe0+Δωo/2-tancωe1+Δωo/2-RAtancωe0-Δωo/2-tancωe1-Δωo/2.
ΔHc=RA tancωe0+Δωo/2tancωe0+Δωo/2-tancωe1+Δωo/2-RA tancωe0-Δωo/2tancωe0-Δωo/2-tancωe1-Δωo/2Rx tanΔωotancωe0-tancωe1,
Δyec=fetancωe+Δωo/2-tancωe-Δωo/2fe tanΔωo.
2θV, 2θH2ωemax,
en2n2-121/2,

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