Abstract

Frequency-modulation spectroscopy provides ultrasensitive absorption measurements. The technique is especially adaptable to diode lasers, which can be modulated easily, and has been used extensively in the near-infrared and infrared spectral regions. The availability of blue diode lasers now means that the accessible wavelength region can be increased. We successfully demonstrate wavelength-modulation spectroscopy and two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy for the weak second resonance line of potassium at 404.8 nm and for the transition at 405.8 nm in lead, starting from the thermally populated 6p 2 3 P 2 metastable level. Information on the modulation parameters is obtained with a fitting procedure. Experimental signal-to-noise ratios at different absorption levels are compared with theoretical signal-to-noise ratios and show good agreement. Detection sensitivities of 2 × 10-6 and 5 × 10-6 for wavelength and two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy, respectively, for a 120-Hz bandwidth are demonstrated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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