Abstract

Experimental results of fiber Bragg gratings fabricated with halftone amplitude transmission masks and 10-cm-long phase masks are presented for the first time to our knowledge. The performance of the devices is evaluated in terms of their spectral characteristics and deviation from linear group delay. Good out-of-band sidelobe suppression of -27 dB and group-delay ripple of ±9.5 ps is achieved for fully apodized grating devices.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Matsuhara, K. O. Hill, “Optical-waveguide band-rejection filters: design,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2886–2888 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.
  5. D. Garthe, G. Milner, Y. Cai, “System performance of broadband dispersion compensating systems,” Electron. Lett. 34, 582–583 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S.A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), vol. 1, pp. 189–190.
  7. W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, R. I. Laming, “Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber-scanning beam technique,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2051–2053 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).
  10. W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Radiation-mode coupling loss in tilted fiber phase gratings,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1838–1840 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, “Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1177–1180 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. N. Zervas, K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, “Design of apodized linearly-chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (NEXUS Media Ltd., Oslo, Norway, 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 233–236.
  17. C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).
  18. H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

1999 (1)

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Garthe, G. Milner, Y. Cai, “System performance of broadband dispersion compensating systems,” Electron. Lett. 34, 582–583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Radiation-mode coupling loss in tilted fiber phase gratings,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1838–1840 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, R. I. Laming, “Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber-scanning beam technique,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2051–2053 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, “Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1177–1180 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Albert, J.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, W.

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

Baker, V.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Barcelos, S.

Berwick, A.

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

Bilodeau, F.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohn, M.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).

Cai, Y.

D. Garthe, G. Milner, Y. Cai, “System performance of broadband dispersion compensating systems,” Electron. Lett. 34, 582–583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

Collar, A.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Durkin, M.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.

Ennser, K.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.

M. N. Zervas, K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, “Design of apodized linearly-chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (NEXUS Media Ltd., Oslo, Norway, 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 233–236.

Epworth, R.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Erdogan, T.

Erickson, L. E.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ettrich, K.

J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fells, J.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Fischer, G.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).

Gal, G.

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

Garthe, D.

D. Garthe, G. Milner, Y. Cai, “System performance of broadband dispersion compensating systems,” Electron. Lett. 34, 582–583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glingener, C.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).

Goodchild, D.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Greene, P.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Henke, W.

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B.

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

Hill, K. O.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuhara, K. O. Hill, “Optical-waveguide band-rejection filters: design,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2886–2888 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppe, W.

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, Y.

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, “Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1177–1180 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.

Johnson, D. C.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanellopoulos, S.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Kitagawa, T.

Laming, R. I.

W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, R. I. Laming, “Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber-scanning beam technique,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2051–2053 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Zervas, K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, “Design of apodized linearly-chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (NEXUS Media Ltd., Oslo, Norway, 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 233–236.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.

Loh, W. H.

Malo, B.

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuhara, M.

Mattias, E.

J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milner, G.

D. Garthe, G. Milner, Y. Cai, “System performance of broadband dispersion compensating systems,” Electron. Lett. 34, 582–583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, K.

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, “Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1177–1180 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Napier, B.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Pugh, B.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Purdy, D.

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

Quenzer, H.-J.

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkranz, W.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).

Rourke, H.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

Ryu, S.

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, “Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1177–1180 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scheerer, C.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).

Shough, D.

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

Shu, C.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

H. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S.A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), vol. 1, pp. 189–190.

Sipe, J. E.

Sixt, P.

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Staudt-Fischbach, P.

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stryckman, D.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

Thériault, S.

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, T. Kitagawa, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, “Chirped in-fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of optical-fiber dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1314–1316 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, B.

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, E.

J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, R. I. Laming, “Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber-scanning beam technique,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2051–2053 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Zervas, K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, “Design of apodized linearly-chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (NEXUS Media Ltd., Oslo, Norway, 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 233–236.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.

Zippin, M.

H. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S.A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), vol. 1, pp. 189–190.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Siegel, K. Ettrich, E. Welsch, E. Mattias, “UV-laser ablation of ductile and brittle metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 213–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

D. Garthe, G. Milner, Y. Cai, “System performance of broadband dispersion compensating systems,” Electron. Lett. 34, 582–583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, L. E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222–223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Thériault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fibre Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 223–224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman, C. Shu, “Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and e-beam written phase masks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 572–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Albert, S. Thériault, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, P. Sixt, M. J. Rooks, “Minimization of phase errors in long fibre Bragg grating phase masks made using electron beam lithography,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 8, 1334–1336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A (1)

G. Gal, B. Herman, W. Anderson, D. Shough, D. Purdy, A. Berwick, “Development of the dispersive microlens,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 3, 97–101 (1994).

J. Lightwave. Technol. (1)

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, “Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 7, 1177–1180 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Henke, W. Hoppe, H.-J. Quenzer, P. Staudt-Fischbach, B. Wagner, “Simulation and process design of gray-tone lithography for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6809–6815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, “Effects of non-ideal group delay and reflection characteristics of chirped fibre grating dispersion compensators,” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 45–48.

H. Singh, M. Zippin, “Apodized fiber Bragg gratings for DWDM applications using uniform phase mask,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (Lerko Print S.A., Madrid, Spain, 1998), vol. 1, pp. 189–190.

M. N. Zervas, K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, “Design of apodized linearly-chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (NEXUS Media Ltd., Oslo, Norway, 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 233–236.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, “Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999).

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth, A. Collar, “Fabrication and system performance of dispersion compensating gratings,” in Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Optical Communication (Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1999), pp. 164–165.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical layout for FBG fabrication. Inset is a photograph of a halftone mask.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the etching pattern in the halftone mask where the transmitted power varies as the square of the chrome-free area (in white). Case (a) represents zero-order transmission increments from 2.5–25% where transmission T = (wh/p 2)2. Case (b) represents transmission increments from 27.5–87.9% where transmission T = (1 - wh/p 2)2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of a halftone mask. (a) Example of a chrome window that results in minimum transmission, (b) example of a chrome island that results in maximum transmission. Since the AFM tip is conical with a diameter of approximately 120 nm, some rounding of the image contours results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

p-i-n diode UV transmission measurements through the halftone masks. (a) Transmission response with position through the full [cos2(x)] apodization mask and its complement [1 - cos2(x)], (b) response through the partial [exp(x 2)cos2(x)] apodization mask and its complement [1 - exp(x 2)cos2(x)]. Solid curves, measured response; dotted curves, ideal response. The gray trace is the resultant total UV dose (sum of the apodization response and complement).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflection spectra of uniform-pitch 100-mm-long FBG devices made with an e-beam-written phase mask. (a) Unapodized device (gray trace) along with a fully apodized device (black trace). (b) Partially apodized device (black trace) along with a simulated response (dotted trace).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Responses from a fully apodized 100-mm-long chirped FBG device made with a holographically written phase mask. (a) Transmission (gray trace) and reflection (black trace) spectra of the device. The dispersion of the device is presented in (b). The dispersion over the 1-dB bandwidth of the device is denoted by the black trace. The deviation from linear group delay over the 1-dB bandwidth of the device is presented in (c).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Responses from a partially apodized 100-mm-long chirped FBG device made with a holographically written phase mask. Transmission and reflection spectra of the device (black traces) are shown in (a) along with simulated responses denoted in gray. The dispersion of the device is presented in (b). The dispersion over the 1-dB bandwidth of the device is denoted by the black trace. The deviation from linear group delay over the 1-dB bandwidth of the device is presented as the black trace (c) along with the simulated response (gray trace).

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