Abstract

Light intensity modulations caused by opaque obstacles (e.g., dust) on silica lenses in high-power lasers often enhance the potential for laser-induced damage. To study this effect, particles (10–250 µm) with various shapes were sputter deposited on the input surface and irradiated with a 3-ns laser beam at 355 nm. Although a clean silica surface damages at fluences above 15 J/cm2, a surface contaminated with particles can damage below 11.5 J/cm2. A pattern that conforms to the shape of the input surface particle is printed on the output surface. Repetitive illumination resulted in catastrophic drilling of the optic. The damage pattern correlated with an interference image of the particle before irradiation. The image shows that the incident beam undergoes phase (and amplitude) modulations after it passes around the particle. We modeled the experiments by calculating the light intensity distribution behind an obscuration by use of Fresnel diffraction theory. The comparison between calculated light intensity distribution and the output surface damage pattern showed good agreement. The model was then used to predict the increased damage vulnerability that results from intensity modulations as a function of particle size, shape, and lens thickness. The predictions provide the basis for optics cleanliness specifications on the National Ignition Facility to reduce the likelihood of optical damage.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

1993 (2)

J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, P. A. Renard, “Hot images from obscurations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5973–5982 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Lock, E. A. Hovenac, “Diffraction of a Gaussian beam by a spherical obstacle,” Am. J. Phys. 61, 698–706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

E. A. Hovenac, “Fresnel diffraction by spherical obstacles,” Am. J. Phys. 57, 79–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal fields of a spherical particle illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam: focal point positioning effects at resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2900–2906 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. Gouesbet, B. Maheu, G. Grehan, “Light scattering from a sphere arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam, using a Bromwich formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1427–1443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

D. S. Burch, “Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 255–260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Gonzales, D. Milam, “Evolution during multiple-shot irradiation of damage surrounding isolated platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 128–137 (1985).

1982 (2)

J. E. Swain, S. E. Stokowski, D. Milam, G. C. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–14 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Newnam, “Optical materials for high-power lasers: recent achievements,” Laser Focus 18 (2), 53–56 (1982).

1981 (2)

H. E. Bennett, “Insensitivity of the catastrophic damage threshold of laser optics to dust and other surface defects,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 620, 256–264 (1981).

M. Sekimoto, H. Yoshihara, T. Ohkubo, Y. Saitoh, “Silicon nitride single-layer X-ray mask,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L669–L672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:YAG-laser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. R. Wirtenson, “High fluence effects on optics in the Argus and Shiva laser chains,” Opt. Eng. 18, 574–578 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, “Small-scale self-focusing effects in a high power glass laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 353–363 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, “Light propagation in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3990–3998 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

P. M. Rinard, “Large-scale diffraction patterns from circular objects,” Am. J. Phys. 44, 70–76 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. A. Fleck, C. Layne, “Study of self-focusing damage in a high-power Nd:glass-rod amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 467–469 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

I. A. Fersman, L. D. Khazov, “The effect of surface cleanliness of optical elements on their radiation resistance,” Opt. Mekh. Promst. 37, 69–70 (1971).

1966 (1)

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear liquids,” JETP Lett. 3, 307–310 (1966).

Affolter, K.

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:YAG-laser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. R.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal fields of a spherical particle illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam: focal point positioning effects at resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2900–2906 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atroschenko, L. V.

V. I. Salo, L. V. Atroschenko, S. V. Garnov, N. V. Khodeyeva, “Structure, impurity composition and laser damage threshold of the subsurface layers in KDP and KD*P single crystals,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 197–201 (1996).

Barton, J. P.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal fields of a spherical particle illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam: focal point positioning effects at resonance,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2900–2906 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, “Insensitivity of the catastrophic damage threshold of laser optics to dust and other surface defects,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 620, 256–264 (1981).

Bespalov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear liquids,” JETP Lett. 3, 307–310 (1966).

Bliss, E. S.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, “Small-scale self-focusing effects in a high power glass laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 353–363 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Boling, N. L.

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. xxiii.

Bowman, J. J.

J. J. Bowman, T. B. A. Senior, P. L. E. Uslenghi, Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes (Hemisphere, New York, 1987), Chap. 14.

Brusasco, R.

F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 355 nm,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 978–986 (1997).

Burch, D. S.

D. S. Burch, “Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 255–260 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Camp, D. W.

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

Chyba, T. H.

G. A. Harvey, T. H. Chyba, M. C. Cimolino, “Cleanliness and damage measurements of optics in atmospheric sensing high energy lasers,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 696–706 (1996).

Cimolino, M. C.

G. A. Harvey, T. H. Chyba, M. C. Cimolino, “Cleanliness and damage measurements of optics in atmospheric sensing high energy lasers,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 696–706 (1996).

De Yoreo, J.

M. Runkel, B. Woods, Y. Ming, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

deSzoeke, S. P.

Dijon, J.

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

Dubé, G.

N. L. Boling, G. Dubé, “Morphological asymmetry in laser damage of transparent dielectric surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 487–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Eder, D. C.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

Faux, D. R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, “Light propagation in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3990–3998 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

Fersman, I. A.

I. A. Fersman, L. D. Khazov, “The effect of surface cleanliness of optical elements on their radiation resistance,” Opt. Mekh. Promst. 37, 69–70 (1971).

Fleck, J. A.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, “Small-scale self-focusing effects in a high power glass laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 353–363 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, “Light propagation in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3990–3998 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fleck, C. Layne, “Study of self-focusing damage in a high-power Nd:glass-rod amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 467–469 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Furr, J.

F. Y. Génin, K. Michlitsch, J. Furr, M. R. Kozlowski, P. Krulevitch, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1064 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 126–138 (1997).

Garnov, S. V.

V. I. Salo, L. V. Atroschenko, S. V. Garnov, N. V. Khodeyeva, “Structure, impurity composition and laser damage threshold of the subsurface layers in KDP and KD*P single crystals,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 197–201 (1996).

Garrec, P.

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

Génin, F. Y.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

F. Y. Génin, C. J. Stolz, “Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings,” in Third International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, A. Giesen, M. Morin, eds., Proc. SPIE2870, 439–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 355 nm,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 978–986 (1997).

F. Y. Génin, K. Michlitsch, J. Furr, M. R. Kozlowski, P. Krulevitch, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1064 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 126–138 (1997).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

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R. P. Gonzales, D. Milam, “Evolution during multiple-shot irradiation of damage surrounding isolated platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 128–137 (1985).

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J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

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J. E. Swain, S. E. Stokowski, D. Milam, G. C. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–14 (1982).
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V. I. Salo, L. V. Atroschenko, S. V. Garnov, N. V. Khodeyeva, “Structure, impurity composition and laser damage threshold of the subsurface layers in KDP and KD*P single crystals,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 197–201 (1996).

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V. I. Salo, M. I. Kolybayeva, V. M. Puzikov, I. M. Pritula, V. G. Vasil’chuk, “The effect of impurities on the value of the bulk laser damage threshold of KDP single crystals,” in Optical Diagnosis of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 549–552 (1998).

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, Y. Ming, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

Kozlowski, M. R.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 355 nm,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 978–986 (1997).

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F. Y. Génin, K. Michlitsch, J. Furr, M. R. Kozlowski, P. Krulevitch, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1064 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 126–138 (1997).

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K. Affolter, W. Luthy, M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:YAG-laser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
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Maheu, B.

Manes, K. R.

J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, P. A. Renard, “Hot images from obscurations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5973–5982 (1993).
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D. Milam, J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, W. H. Williams, “Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 425–428 (1997).

Michlitsch, K.

F. Y. Génin, K. Michlitsch, J. Furr, M. R. Kozlowski, P. Krulevitch, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1064 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 126–138 (1997).

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C. C. Widmayer, D. Milam, S. P. deSzoeke, “Nonlinear formation of holographic images of obscurations in laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9342–9347 (1997).
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R. P. Gonzales, D. Milam, “Evolution during multiple-shot irradiation of damage surrounding isolated platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 128–137 (1985).

J. E. Swain, S. E. Stokowski, D. Milam, G. C. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–14 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, W. H. Williams, “Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 425–428 (1997).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, Y. Ming, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

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J. E. Murray, B. Van Wonterghem, L. Seppala, D. R. Speck, J. R. Murray, “Parasitic pencil beams caused by lens reflections in laser amplifier chains,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. F. Krupke, ed., Proc. SPIE2633, 608–614 (1995).
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V. I. Salo, M. I. Kolybayeva, V. M. Puzikov, I. M. Pritula, V. G. Vasil’chuk, “The effect of impurities on the value of the bulk laser damage threshold of KDP single crystals,” in Optical Diagnosis of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 549–552 (1998).

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V. I. Salo, M. I. Kolybayeva, V. M. Puzikov, I. M. Pritula, V. G. Vasil’chuk, “The effect of impurities on the value of the bulk laser damage threshold of KDP single crystals,” in Optical Diagnosis of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 549–552 (1998).

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M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, Y. Ming, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

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J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

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V. I. Salo, M. I. Kolybayeva, V. M. Puzikov, I. M. Pritula, V. G. Vasil’chuk, “The effect of impurities on the value of the bulk laser damage threshold of KDP single crystals,” in Optical Diagnosis of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 549–552 (1998).

V. I. Salo, L. V. Atroschenko, S. V. Garnov, N. V. Khodeyeva, “Structure, impurity composition and laser damage threshold of the subsurface layers in KDP and KD*P single crystals,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 197–201 (1996).

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J. E. Murray, B. Van Wonterghem, L. Seppala, D. R. Speck, J. R. Murray, “Parasitic pencil beams caused by lens reflections in laser amplifier chains,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. F. Krupke, ed., Proc. SPIE2633, 608–614 (1995).
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M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. R. Faux, R. A. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Génin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., SPIE2966, 417–424 (1997).

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F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

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Speck, D. R.

J. E. Murray, B. Van Wonterghem, L. Seppala, D. R. Speck, J. R. Murray, “Parasitic pencil beams caused by lens reflections in laser amplifier chains,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. F. Krupke, ed., Proc. SPIE2633, 608–614 (1995).
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J. E. Swain, S. E. Stokowski, D. Milam, G. C. Kennedy, “The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 12–14 (1982).
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A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

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Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, W. H.

D. Milam, J. T. Hunt, K. R. Manes, W. H. Williams, “Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 425–428 (1997).

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M. Runkel, B. Woods, Y. Ming, J. De Yoreo, M. Kozlowski, “Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 185–195 (1996).

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Yoshiyama, J.

J. Yoshiyama, F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, I. M. Thomas, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, I. D. Hutcheon, D. W. Camp, “Effects of polishing, etching, cleaving, and water leaching on the UV laser damage of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 331–340 (1998).

A. Salleo, F. Y. Génin, J. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 341–347 (1998).

F. Y. Génin, L. M. Sheehan, J. Yoshiyama, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, “Statistical of UV-laser-induced failure of fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 155–163 (1998).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Left to right, two scanning-electron micrographs (SEM’s) of the 3-in. (7.6-cm) wafer used as a deposition mask and two photographs of the back side of the mask, showing the silicon nitride windows at increasing magnifications. (b) Optical photograph of the 2-in. (5-cm) fused-silica sample and sketch of the spatial arrangement of small metal dots on the input surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal and (b) spatial profiles of the 355-nm Gaussian laser beam. The pulse width is ∼3 ns, and the 1/e 2 diameter of the beam is 1.1 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nomarski optical micrographs of (a) a 150-µm titanium particle (1 µm thick) upon the silica input surface before irradiation, (b) the output surface before irradiation, and (c) the damage on the input surface and (d) the damage on the output surface after a 3-ns pulse at 12.7 J/cm2 at 355 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Atomic-force microscope line scan of an output-surface damage ring pattern similar to that shown in Fig. 3. The scan confirms that the phase shifts detected in Normarski differential interference microscopy are caused by topological changes of the silica surface profile. (b) Scanning-electron micrograph of a damaged output surface, showing cracks and molten regions that follow the diffraction pattern of the input-surface particle. The damage was caused by three shots at 14 J/cm2. Fine polishing scratches were also revealed on the surface after damage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

White-light optical interference micrographs of output-surface damage caused by circular titanium particles of sizes (a) 10 µm, (b) 20 µm, (c) 30 µm, (d) 50 µm, (e) 150 µm, and (f) 250 µm on the input surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Reflected-light interferogram of a 150-µm titanium dot before irradiation. The measurement was performed at 632.8 nm. (b) Line scans of the profile through the center of the ring pattern are shown at the left.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nomarski optical micrographs showing the growth of input- and output-surface damage on a 1-µm-thick square titanium particle during repetitive illumination. The site was irradiated at 12.9 J/cm2 for a total of 25 shots. The output-surface pattern follows the shape of the titanium particle. A damage crater is visible after 14 shots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Computed light-intensity modulation as a function of distance from a circular obscuration on the input surface.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Computed intensification patterns at the output surface caused by obscurations of sizes (a) 10 µm, (b) 20 µm, (c) 30 µm, (d) 50 µm, (e) 150 µm, and (f) 250 µm on the input surface. The calculations were performed for a window thickness of 11.5 mm and correspond to the experimental profiles shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Small-signal nonlinear gain caused by self-focusing at 355 nm for a nominal intensity of 1 GW/cm2 as a function of intensity modulation scale or wavelength. The scale (or obscuration size) that leads to the highest gain is ∼300 µm. Nonlinear gain drops rapidly for smaller transverse scales. The maximum small-signal nonlinear gain varies with intensity and wavelength as I/λ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the computed light-modulation pattern (11.5 mm from the obscuration on the input surface) and the surface topology of the output surface (proportional to the amount of removed material) for obscurations with diameters of (a) 10 µm, (b) 20 µm, (c) 30 µm, (d) 50 µm, (e) 150 µm, and (f) 250 µm. Because the amount of material removed increases with the intensity of the light that irradiates the area, the positions of peaks and valleys on both profiles should coincide. The experimental surface profiles are not symmetric because the irradiation is slightly off normal; these profiles are shown as dashed curves.

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