Abstract

An all-fiber antenna with a piezoelectric polymer-coated circular-core D fiber has been characterized by finite-element analysis. The response of the D-fiber antenna was determined over a wide frequency range from 1 to 500 MHz. The modeling predicts an electric-field-induced phase shift of 2.43 × 10-5 rad/(V/m)/m at 5 MHz. At frequencies higher than 8 MHz the optical response is dominated by radial resonances of the D-fiber–coating composite. From the simulation results a minimum detectable electric field of 41-µV/m has been achieved with a 1-km length of coated D fiber. In addition, a D-fiber antenna network intended for microcellular communications has been analyzed by shot-noise-limited detection.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. S. Wu, J. Wu, H. W. Tsao, “A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 84–94 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 143, 370–374 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, “An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 501–509 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “Optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for radio on fibre applications in microcellular mobile communications,” in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference (GLOBECOM 97) (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 87–91.
  6. T. Conese, G. Barbarosa, M. N. Armenise, “Accurate loss analysis of single-mode fiber/D-fiber splice by vectorial finite-element method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, G. Murtaza, “Numerical modelling of a fibre-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 812–815 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. P. DePaula, E. L. Moore, “Review of all-fiber phase and polarization modulators,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors II, E. L. Moore, O. G. Ramer, eds., Proc. SPIE478, 3–16 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. D. DeSouza, M. D. Mermelstein, “Electric field detection with a piezoelectric polymer-jacketed single-mode optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4214–4218 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Jarzynski, R. P. DePaula, “Fiber optic electric field sensor technology,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors IV, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE718, 48–55 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Roeksabutr, P. L. Chu, “Design of high-frequency ZnO-coated optical fiber acoustooptic phase modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1203–1211 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practise (Prentice-Hall, London, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 512–579.
  15. H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “All optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for microcellular mobile communication networks,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC 97), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 54–58.

1999

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, G. Murtaza, “Numerical modelling of a fibre-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 812–815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. S. Wu, J. Wu, H. W. Tsao, “A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 84–94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Roeksabutr, P. L. Chu, “Design of high-frequency ZnO-coated optical fiber acoustooptic phase modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1203–1211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 143, 370–374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Conese, G. Barbarosa, M. N. Armenise, “Accurate loss analysis of single-mode fiber/D-fiber splice by vectorial finite-element method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, “An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 501–509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

Al-Raweshidy, H. S.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, G. Murtaza, “Numerical modelling of a fibre-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 812–815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 143, 370–374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “Optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for radio on fibre applications in microcellular mobile communications,” in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference (GLOBECOM 97) (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 87–91.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “All optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for microcellular mobile communication networks,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC 97), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 54–58.

Armenise, M. N.

T. Conese, G. Barbarosa, M. N. Armenise, “Accurate loss analysis of single-mode fiber/D-fiber splice by vectorial finite-element method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbarosa, G.

T. Conese, G. Barbarosa, M. N. Armenise, “Accurate loss analysis of single-mode fiber/D-fiber splice by vectorial finite-element method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G. E.

C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, “An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 501–509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bhatti, A.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, G. Murtaza, “Numerical modelling of a fibre-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 812–815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Conese, T.

T. Conese, G. Barbarosa, M. N. Armenise, “Accurate loss analysis of single-mode fiber/D-fiber splice by vectorial finite-element method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C. H.

C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, “An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 501–509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DePaula, R. P.

J. Jarzynski, R. P. DePaula, “Fiber optic electric field sensor technology,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors IV, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE718, 48–55 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. P. DePaula, E. L. Moore, “Review of all-fiber phase and polarization modulators,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors II, E. L. Moore, O. G. Ramer, eds., Proc. SPIE478, 3–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DeSouza, P. D.

Fox, G. R.

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gusarov, A.

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Imai, M.

M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jarzynski, J.

J. Jarzynski, R. P. DePaula, “Fiber optic electric field sensor technology,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors IV, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE718, 48–55 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, “An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 501–509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ky, N. H.

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marcenac, D. D.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mermelstein, M. D.

Moodie, D. G.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E. L.

R. P. DePaula, E. L. Moore, “Review of all-fiber phase and polarization modulators,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors II, E. L. Moore, O. G. Ramer, eds., Proc. SPIE478, 3–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, F. A.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 143, 370–374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “Optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for radio on fibre applications in microcellular mobile communications,” in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference (GLOBECOM 97) (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 87–91.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “All optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for microcellular mobile communication networks,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC 97), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 54–58.

Murtaza, G.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, G. Murtaza, “Numerical modelling of a fibre-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 812–815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noel, L.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Odajima, A.

M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roeksabutr, A.

Salathe, R. P.

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Senior, J. M.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 143, 370–374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “Optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for radio on fibre applications in microcellular mobile communications,” in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference (GLOBECOM 97) (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 87–91.

J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practise (Prentice-Hall, London, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 512–579.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “All optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for microcellular mobile communication networks,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC 97), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 54–58.

Shimiuzu, T.

M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, H. W.

J. S. Wu, J. Wu, H. W. Tsao, “A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 84–94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wake, D.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, L. D.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. S. Wu, J. Wu, H. W. Tsao, “A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 84–94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. S.

J. S. Wu, J. Wu, H. W. Tsao, “A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 84–94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Conese, G. Barbarosa, M. N. Armenise, “Accurate loss analysis of single-mode fiber/D-fiber splice by vectorial finite-element method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, G. Murtaza, “Numerical modelling of a fibre-optic phase modulator using piezoelectric polymer coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 812–815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1416–1423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, “An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 501–509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.

J. S. Wu, J. Wu, H. W. Tsao, “A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 84–94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Roeksabutr, P. L. Chu, “Design of high-frequency ZnO-coated optical fiber acoustooptic phase modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1203–1211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gusarov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, G. R. Fox, “High-performance optical phase modulation using piezoelectric ZnO-coated standard telecommunication fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2771–2777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Imai, T. Shimiuzu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, “An electric-field sensitive fiber with coaxial electrodes for optical phase modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEE Optoelectron.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 143, 370–374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “Optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for radio on fibre applications in microcellular mobile communications,” in Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference (GLOBECOM 97) (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 87–91.

R. P. DePaula, E. L. Moore, “Review of all-fiber phase and polarization modulators,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors II, E. L. Moore, O. G. Ramer, eds., Proc. SPIE478, 3–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Jarzynski, R. P. DePaula, “Fiber optic electric field sensor technology,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors IV, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE718, 48–55 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practise (Prentice-Hall, London, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 512–579.

H. S. Al-Raweshidy, F. A. Muhammad, J. M. Senior, “All optical fibre antenna using D-fibre for microcellular mobile communication networks,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC 97), (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 54–58.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical generation of microwaves: (a) direct modulation, (b) external modulation with an optical D-fiber antenna.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the D fiber: (a) cross section, (b) D-fiber antenna showing dipole orientation of the PVDF polymer jacket.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Finite-element results showing the optical phase shift as a function of the applied ac voltage frequency for a 10-cm-length D fiber coated with PVDF polymer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometric detection system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microcellular D-fiber antenna network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of D-fiber antennae versus minimum detectable phase shift.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Elastic Properties of Glass D Fiber and Piezoelectric and Elastic Properties of PVDF Polymer

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ=βL=k0nL,
Δϕ=k0nΔL+k0LΔn.
Δ1n2i=j=16 PijSj,
Δ1n2i=-2Δnin3.
Δn1Δn2Δn3Δn4Δn5Δn6=- n32P11S1+P12S2+P12S3P12S1+P11S2+P12S3P12S1+P12S2+P11S3000.
Δn1=-n32P11S1+P12S2+P12S3,  Δn2=-n32P12S1+P11S2+P12S3,
Δϕ1=k0nLS3-n22P11S1+P12S2+P12S3,  Δϕ2=k0nLS3-n22P12S1+P11S2+P12S3.
B=Δϕ1-Δϕ2=k0n3LP44S1-S2,
P44=P11-P122.
Δϕ1=k0nLS3-n22P11S1+P12S2+P12S3.
SNR=ηP0Δϕj24hνΔfNa3,
Δϕi=4hνΔfNa3ηP01/2
ΔϕiΔf=4hνNa3ηP01/2.

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