Ref. 1, p. 38.
J. M. Grove, The Little Ice Age (Methuen, London, 1988).
In Ref. 7, p. 298, Holm quotes Björn Jónsson’s Grönlands Annaler (1625) from Grønlands historiske Mindesmærker (The Historical Records of Greenland) (Copenhagen 1838 ff), Vol. 1, p. 127.
John Ross, A Voyage of Discovery (Murray, London, 1819).
J. Jóhannesson, A History of the Old Icelandic Commonwealth (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, 1974), pp. 106–107.
Mt. Rigny, a mountain of elevation 2470 m, is located 35 km inland from the Greenland coast, nearly along the shortest line of sight from Iceland to Greenland. Its distance from Snæfjall (793 m) in Iceland is 357 km. In the standard atmosphere the horizon distance d (km) from either peak is approximately d = 3.9 h, where h is the elevation in meters. For an observer whose eye elevation is 3 m, a ray tangent to the horizon would meet the tips of Snæfjall and Mt. Rigny at distances 117 km and 201 km, respectively. The gap in intervisibility is thus 39 km. However, the distance to be sailed without a comfortable view of land (say, 5 arc min high) is somewhat longer, 62 km.
J. Först, “Geschichte der Entdeckung Grönlands,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Alexanders-Universität Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, 1906), p. 9.
Ref. 3, Vol. 1, p. 262; the account of Ivar Bardsson.
Ref. 1; p. 129.
Ref. 1; 165.
The Blosseville Coast consists of very high mountains (the Watkins Range), the highest of which, Gunnbjörns Fjæld, exceeds 3900 m.
All geographical information is taken from the global digital elevation model GTOPO30. This public-domain digital elevation model, which covers the globe at a resolution of 30 arc sec, is obtainable at http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/gtopo30/gtopo30.html . The map and the perspective images of Fig. 2 are produced with Generic Mapping Tools Version 3.2 (available from http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/gmt ). See also P. Wessel, W. H. F. Smith, “New, improved version of the Generic Mapping Tools released,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 79, 579 (1998).
G. Jones, The Norse Atlantic Saga (Oxford, London, 1964).
K. Gjerset, History of Iceland (MacMillan, New York, 1924).
F. Nansen, In Northern Mists, 2 Vols. (Heinemann, London, 1911; reprinted by AMS New York, 1969).
F. Gad, The History of Greenland I: Earliest Times to 1700 (Hurst, London, 1970).
K. A. Seaver, The Frozen Echo (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1996).
In Ref. 3, Vol. 1, p. 263, Nansen quotes Björn Jónsson’s Grönlands Annaler (1625) from Grønlands historiske Mindesmærker (The Historical Records of Greenland) (Copenhagen 1838 ff), Vol. 1, p. 88.
G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 569.
W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
F. Baur, Meteorologisches Taschenbuch (Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, 1970), Vol. 2, p. 525.
M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), p. 95.
W. E. K. Middleton, “Vision through the Atmosphere,” Handbuch der Physik (Springer, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 48, pp. 254–287. The distance at which the transmission factor equals 0.02 (the minimum contrast detectable by the human eye) gives Koschmieder’s visual range for a black object.
F. Nansen, In Nacht und Eis (Die Norwegische Polarexpedition 1893–1896) (Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1897), Vol. 1, pp. 315–316.
E. H. Shackleton, South–The Story of Shackleton’s Last Expedition 1914–1917 (MacMillan, New York, 1920), p. 49.
G. H. Liljequist, “Refraction phenomena in the polar Atmosphere,” in Scientific Results: Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1949–1952 (Oslo University, Oslo, 1964), Vol. 2, Part 2.
S. R. Church, “Atmospheric mirage and distortion modeling for IR target injection simulations,” in Meeting on Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation II, W. R. Watkins, ed., Proc. SPIE2742, 122–135 (1996).
R. Cleasby, G. Vigfusson, An Icelandic/English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1957). The word hillingar is defined as “upheaving, esp. of a mirage, when rocks and islands look as if lifted above the level of the sea.”
T. Búason, “Mirages and vertical contraction of images of distant objects,” P.O. Box 273, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland (personal communication, 1998).