Abstract

We have studied the seldom-seen halo phenomenon that can arise in divergent light, Minnaert’s Cigar, which we produced in laboratory experiments and computer simulation. In the laboratory experiments halos or transections were produced in clouds of alum crystals precipitated in a solution of ethyl alcohol or in alum crystals deposited upon glass plates. The three-dimensional cigar form was less pronounced in our small-scale experiments than when the form was observed over several meters. In our experiments and simulations transections through Minnaert’s Cigar include different halo forms that may arise on window panes or windshields covered with halo-active ice crystals or as horizontal halos on glittering frost-covered ground.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Floor, “Rainbows and haloes in lighthouse beams,” Weather 35, 203–208 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Floor, “Optic phenomena and optical illusions near lighthouses,” Z. Meteorol. 32, 229–233 (1982).
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  4. J. O. Mattsson, S. Nordbeck, B. Rystedt, “Dewbows and fogbows in divergent light,” No. 11 of Lund Studies in Geography Series C (Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 1971).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Walker, The Flying Circus of Physics with Answers (Wiley, New York, 1975).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. O. Mattsson, L. Bärring, “Reflections on retroreflection,” submitted to Meteorol. Z.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Lenggenhager, “Zur immer umstritten Erklärung des Brockengespenstes,” Z. Meteorol. 29, 179–183 (1979).
  13. F. Richarz, “Über Beobachtung des künstlichen Brockengespenstes,” Meteorol. Z. 25, 19–25 (1908).
  14. J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on the horizontal circle in divergent light,” Z. Meteorol. 28, 123–125 (1978).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Cornu, “Sur la reproduction artificielle des halos et des cercles parhéliques,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 108, 429–433 (1889).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1998 (4)

1994 (1)

1982 (1)

C. Floor, “Optic phenomena and optical illusions near lighthouses,” Z. Meteorol. 32, 229–233 (1982).

1980 (1)

C. Floor, “Rainbows and haloes in lighthouse beams,” Weather 35, 203–208 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. Lenggenhager, “Zur immer umstritten Erklärung des Brockengespenstes,” Z. Meteorol. 29, 179–183 (1979).

1978 (1)

J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on the horizontal circle in divergent light,” Z. Meteorol. 28, 123–125 (1978).

1977 (1)

K. Lenggenhager, “Eine neue Erklärung des Brockengespenstes und seine Nebelglorie,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. A 26, 381–392 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on horizontal haloes in divergent light,” Weather 29, 148–150 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. O. Mattsson, “‘Sun–sun’ and light-pillars of street lamps,” Weather 28, 66–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

J. L. Monteith, “Refraction and the spider,” Weather 9, 140–141 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

M. Minnaert, “Een halo in de onmiddellijke nabijheid van het oog,” Hemel Dampkring 26, 51–54 (1928).

1908 (1)

F. Richarz, “Über Beobachtung des künstlichen Brockengespenstes,” Meteorol. Z. 25, 19–25 (1908).

1891 (1)

A. W. Clayden, “On Brocken spectres in a London fog,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 17, 209–216 (1891).
[CrossRef]

1889 (1)

A. Cornu, “Sur la reproduction artificielle des halos et des cercles parhéliques,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 108, 429–433 (1889).

Bärring, L.

J. O. Mattsson, L. Bärring, “Reflections on retroreflection,” submitted to Meteorol. Z.

Bates, H. E.

Clayden, A. W.

A. W. Clayden, “On Brocken spectres in a London fog,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 17, 209–216 (1891).
[CrossRef]

Cornu, A.

A. Cornu, “Sur la reproduction artificielle des halos et des cercles parhéliques,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 108, 429–433 (1889).

Exner, F. M.

J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).

Floor, C.

C. Floor, “Optic phenomena and optical illusions near lighthouses,” Z. Meteorol. 32, 229–233 (1982).

C. Floor, “Rainbows and haloes in lighthouse beams,” Weather 35, 203–208 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, A. B.

Greenler, R. G.

Hock, J. L.

Lenggenhager, K.

K. Lenggenhager, “Zur immer umstritten Erklärung des Brockengespenstes,” Z. Meteorol. 29, 179–183 (1979).

K. Lenggenhager, “Eine neue Erklärung des Brockengespenstes und seine Nebelglorie,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. A 26, 381–392 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mallmann, A. J.

Mattsson, J. O.

J. O. Mattsson, “Concerning haloes, rainbows and dewbows in divergent light,” Weather 53, 176–181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on the horizontal circle in divergent light,” Z. Meteorol. 28, 123–125 (1978).

J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on horizontal haloes in divergent light,” Weather 29, 148–150 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Mattsson, “‘Sun–sun’ and light-pillars of street lamps,” Weather 28, 66–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Mattsson, L. Bärring, “Reflections on retroreflection,” submitted to Meteorol. Z.

J. O. Mattsson, S. Nordbeck, B. Rystedt, “Dewbows and fogbows in divergent light,” No. 11 of Lund Studies in Geography Series C (Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 1971).

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, “Een halo in de onmiddellijke nabijheid van het oog,” Hemel Dampkring 26, 51–54 (1928).

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover, New York, 1954); German edition, Light and Color in the Outdoors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).

Monteith, J. L.

J. L. Monteith, “Refraction and the spider,” Weather 9, 140–141 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Nordbeck, S.

J. O. Mattsson, S. Nordbeck, B. Rystedt, “Dewbows and fogbows in divergent light,” No. 11 of Lund Studies in Geography Series C (Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 1971).

Pernter, J. M.

J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).

Richarz, F.

F. Richarz, “Über Beobachtung des künstlichen Brockengespenstes,” Meteorol. Z. 25, 19–25 (1908).

Rystedt, B.

J. O. Mattsson, S. Nordbeck, B. Rystedt, “Dewbows and fogbows in divergent light,” No. 11 of Lund Studies in Geography Series C (Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 1971).

Tammer, R.

Vollmer, M.

Walker, J.

J. Walker, The Flying Circus of Physics with Answers (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Warner, G.

Wegener, A.

A. Wegener, “Optik den Atmosphäre,” in Müller–Pouillets Lehrbuch der Physik, 11th ed., A. Eucken, O. Lummer, E. Waetzmann, eds. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany, 1928), Chap. 3.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. A (1)

K. Lenggenhager, “Eine neue Erklärung des Brockengespenstes und seine Nebelglorie,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. A 26, 381–392 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

A. Cornu, “Sur la reproduction artificielle des halos et des cercles parhéliques,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 108, 429–433 (1889).

Hemel Dampkring (1)

M. Minnaert, “Een halo in de onmiddellijke nabijheid van het oog,” Hemel Dampkring 26, 51–54 (1928).

Meteorol. Z. (1)

F. Richarz, “Über Beobachtung des künstlichen Brockengespenstes,” Meteorol. Z. 25, 19–25 (1908).

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

A. W. Clayden, “On Brocken spectres in a London fog,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 17, 209–216 (1891).
[CrossRef]

Weather (5)

J. O. Mattsson, “‘Sun–sun’ and light-pillars of street lamps,” Weather 28, 66–68 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. Floor, “Rainbows and haloes in lighthouse beams,” Weather 35, 203–208 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Monteith, “Refraction and the spider,” Weather 9, 140–141 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Mattsson, “Concerning haloes, rainbows and dewbows in divergent light,” Weather 53, 176–181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on horizontal haloes in divergent light,” Weather 29, 148–150 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Z. Meteorol. (3)

C. Floor, “Optic phenomena and optical illusions near lighthouses,” Z. Meteorol. 32, 229–233 (1982).

J. O. Mattsson, “Experiments on the horizontal circle in divergent light,” Z. Meteorol. 28, 123–125 (1978).

K. Lenggenhager, “Zur immer umstritten Erklärung des Brockengespenstes,” Z. Meteorol. 29, 179–183 (1979).

Other (7)

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover, New York, 1954); German edition, Light and Color in the Outdoors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).

F. Linke, F. Möller, eds., Physik der Atmosphäre I. Atmosphärische Strahlungsforschung, Vol. 8 of Handbuch der Geophysik (Bornträger, Berlin, 1961).

J. O. Mattsson, S. Nordbeck, B. Rystedt, “Dewbows and fogbows in divergent light,” No. 11 of Lund Studies in Geography Series C (Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 1971).

J. O. Mattsson, L. Bärring, “Reflections on retroreflection,” submitted to Meteorol. Z.

J. Walker, The Flying Circus of Physics with Answers (Wiley, New York, 1975).

J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922).

A. Wegener, “Optik den Atmosphäre,” in Müller–Pouillets Lehrbuch der Physik, 11th ed., A. Eucken, O. Lummer, E. Waetzmann, eds. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany, 1928), Chap. 3.

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