Abstract

An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from high-reflectance mirrors, 50% beam splitters, and antireflection-coated windows. Results were sent to the Laser Zentrum Hannover, which acted as coordinator and analyzed all the backscattering data. The results showed that the procedure in the draft standard was useful for measuring and reporting backscattering for low-scatter optics. Problems encountered in the round-robin experiment included the accumulation of particles on the surfaces, particularly on the high-reflectance mirrors.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. International Organization for Standardization, Working Group 6, Subcommittee 9, Technical Committee 172, “Optics and optical instruments—test methods for radiation scattered by optical components,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 10August1999).
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  3. M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Detrio, S. M. Miner, “Standardized total integrated scatter measurements of optical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 419–422 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Zeit. 29, 595–597 (1900).
  7. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface roughness measurements of low-scatter mirrors and roughness standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820–3836 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. W. Coblentz, “The diffuse reflecting power of various substances,” Bull. Bur. Stand. (US) 9, 283–325 (1913).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480–488 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 29–33.
  11. A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z.-H. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Spectralon (PTFE) and Spectraflect (BaSO4) are sold by Labshpere, Inc., a subsidiary of X-Rite, Inc., P.O. Box 70, North Sutton, N.H. 03260-0070.
  14. P. Nostell, A. Roos, D. Rönnow, “Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2481–2494 (1999), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Halyo, D. Taylor, “Explicit solution of the spectral radiance in integrating spheres with application to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ground calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 520–534 (1998).
  16. D. Rönnow, A. Roos, “Correction factors for reflectance and transmittance measurements of scattering samples in focusing Coblentz spheres,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2411–2422 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Lorincik, J. Fine, “Focusing properties of hemispherical mirrors for total integrating scattering instruments,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8270–8274 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. SQ2 fused silica is manufactured by Sico Jena GmbH Quarzschmelze, Göschwitzer Strasse 20, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
  19. Suprasil fused silica is manufactured by Heraeus Quarzglas GmbH, Box 1554, D-63405 Hanau, Germany.
  20. Ref. 10, pp. 7–11.
  21. C. Amra, D. Torricini, P. Roche, “Multiwavelength (0.45–10.6 µm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5462–5474 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Ref. 10, p. 95.

1999 (1)

P. Nostell, A. Roos, D. Rönnow, “Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2481–2494 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

N. Halyo, D. Taylor, “Explicit solution of the spectral radiance in integrating spheres with application to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ground calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 520–534 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

D. Rönnow, A. Roos, “Correction factors for reflectance and transmittance measurements of scattering samples in focusing Coblentz spheres,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2411–2422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

J. A. Detrio, S. M. Miner, “Standardized total integrated scatter measurements of optical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 419–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1978 (1)

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1913 (1)

W. W. Coblentz, “The diffuse reflecting power of various substances,” Bull. Bur. Stand. (US) 9, 283–325 (1913).
[CrossRef]

1900 (1)

R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Zeit. 29, 595–597 (1900).

Amra, C.

C. Amra, D. Torricini, P. Roche, “Multiwavelength (0.45–10.6 µm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5462–5474 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface roughness measurements of low-scatter mirrors and roughness standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820–3836 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 29–33.

Coblentz, W. W.

W. W. Coblentz, “The diffuse reflecting power of various substances,” Bull. Bur. Stand. (US) 9, 283–325 (1913).
[CrossRef]

Detrio, J. A.

J. A. Detrio, S. M. Miner, “Standardized total integrated scatter measurements of optical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 419–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Detrio, “ASTM and OSA efforts to develop an optical surface roughness measurement standard,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, L. R. Baker, H. E. Bennett, eds., Proc. SPIE525, 58–63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Deumie, C.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z.-H. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fine, J.

Gliech, S.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z.-H. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, M.

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Greif, M.

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Guenther, K. H.

Halyo, N.

N. Halyo, D. Taylor, “Explicit solution of the spectral radiance in integrating spheres with application to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ground calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 520–534 (1998).

Jolie, C.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kadkhoda, M.

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Kadkhoda, P.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, H.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lauth, H.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lindström, T.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lorincik, J.

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 29–33.

Miner, S. M.

J. A. Detrio, S. M. Miner, “Standardized total integrated scatter measurements of optical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 419–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nostell, P.

P. Nostell, A. Roos, D. Rönnow, “Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2481–2494 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Reng, N.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Ribbing, C.-G.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Roche, P.

Rönnow, D.

P. Nostell, A. Roos, D. Rönnow, “Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2481–2494 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Rönnow, A. Roos, “Correction factors for reflectance and transmittance measurements of scattering samples in focusing Coblentz spheres,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2411–2422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roos, A.

P. Nostell, A. Roos, D. Rönnow, “Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2481–2494 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Rönnow, A. Roos, “Correction factors for reflectance and transmittance measurements of scattering samples in focusing Coblentz spheres,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2411–2422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuhmann, R.

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Schuhmann, R. G.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuhmann, U.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strink, P.

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

Taylor, D.

N. Halyo, D. Taylor, “Explicit solution of the spectral radiance in integrating spheres with application to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ground calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 520–534 (1998).

Tilsch, M.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torricini, D.

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Zeit. 29, 595–597 (1900).

Veszelei, E.

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, P. G.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Bur. Stand. (US) (1)

W. W. Coblentz, “The diffuse reflecting power of various substances,” Bull. Bur. Stand. (US) 9, 283–325 (1913).
[CrossRef]

Elektrotech. Zeit. (1)

R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Zeit. 29, 595–597 (1900).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

N. Halyo, D. Taylor, “Explicit solution of the spectral radiance in integrating spheres with application to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ground calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 520–534 (1998).

Opt. Eng. (2)

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering characteristics of optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480–488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Detrio, S. M. Miner, “Standardized total integrated scatter measurements of optical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 419–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

P. Nostell, A. Roos, D. Rönnow, “Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2481–2494 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Rönnow, A. Roos, “Correction factors for reflectance and transmittance measurements of scattering samples in focusing Coblentz spheres,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2411–2422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

International Organization for Standardization, Working Group 6, Subcommittee 9, Technical Committee 172, “Optics and optical instruments—test methods for radiation scattered by optical components,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 10August1999).

American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard test method for measuring the effective surface roughness of optical components by total integrated scattering,” (American Society for Testing and Materials, Conshohocken, Pa., August1987). This document is available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018; web site: http://www.astm.org .

M. Kadkhoda, P. Strink, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, N. Reng, M. Greif, R. Schuhmann, M. Goldner, “Concepts for standardization of total scatter measurements at 633 nm,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop of Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998), pp. 298–313.

J. A. Detrio, “ASTM and OSA efforts to develop an optical surface roughness measurement standard,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, L. R. Baker, H. E. Bennett, eds., Proc. SPIE525, 58–63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 29–33.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z.-H. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spectralon (PTFE) and Spectraflect (BaSO4) are sold by Labshpere, Inc., a subsidiary of X-Rite, Inc., P.O. Box 70, North Sutton, N.H. 03260-0070.

SQ2 fused silica is manufactured by Sico Jena GmbH Quarzschmelze, Göschwitzer Strasse 20, D-07745 Jena, Germany.

Suprasil fused silica is manufactured by Heraeus Quarzglas GmbH, Box 1554, D-63405 Hanau, Germany.

Ref. 10, pp. 7–11.

P. Kadkhoda, C. Amra, J. M. Bennett, C. Deumie, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, H. Lauth, T. Lindström, A. Müller, N. Reng, C.-G. Ribbing, D. Ristau, R. G. Schuhmann, U. Schuhmann, M. Tilsch, “International round-robin experiment on optical total scattering at 633 nm according to ISO/DIS 13696,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, R. Geyl, J. Maxwell, eds., Proc. SPIE3739, 548–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ref. 10, p. 95.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TS measurement setups with (a) an Ulbricht sphere and (b) a Coblentz hemisphere, according to standard ISO/DIS 13696. ROA, range-of-acceptance angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TS data taken in a line for AR sample 25 in cycle 1 (solid curve) and cycle 2 (dashed curve). The data were taken at different places on the sample surface. The optimized mean values of the TS are given in the box at the upper right-hand side.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimized mean values of the TS for AR samples in cycle 1 (triangles) and cycle 2 (circles). The optimized standard deviations are given for the cycle 2 measurements. The value for sample 4 is >700 ppm in cycle 1 and is not shown. See text for a description of the data for samples 31–33 and the missing data points in the cycle 2 measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimized mean values of the TS for BS samples in cycle 1 (triangles) and cycle 2 (circles). The optimized standard deviations are given for the cycle 2 measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimized mean values of the TS for HR samples in cycle 1 (triangles) and cycle 2 (circles). The cycle 2 values for 3 points (samples 5, 11, and 30) are higher than 1500 ppm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TS data taken in a line for HR sample 24 in cycle 3 (solid curve) and cycle 4 (dashed curve). The data were taken at different places on the sample surface. The optimized mean values of the TS are given in the box in the upper right-hand corner.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optimized mean values of the TS for AR samples in cycle 2 (circles) and cycle 3 (triangles). The optimized standard deviations are given for the cycle 3 measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optimized mean values of the TS for BS samples in cycle 2 (circles) and cycle 3 (triangles). The optimized standard deviations are given for the cycle 3 measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optimized mean values of the TS for HR samples in cycle 2 (circles) and cycle 3 (triangles). The optimized standard deviations are given for the cycle 3 measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histogram showing all the raw TS data as measured by all laboratories on AR samples in cycles 1, 2, and 3. The TS values are represented on the x axis, and the number of data points that have the value in a bar are represented on the y axis. The optimized mean value of the TS is given in the box in the upper right-hand corner.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Histogram of the data as in Fig. 10 but for the BS samples.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Histogram of the data as in Fig. 10 but for the HR samples.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

ARS measured in cycle 2 on (a) one AR sample, (b) one BS sample, (c) one HR sample.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Laboratories that Participated in the Round-Robin Measurements

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Table 2 Properties of the Instruments Used by the Participating Laboratoriesa

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Table 3 Characteristics of the Round-Robin Samples

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Table 4 Optimized Mean Values of TS in ppm for All Samples Measured in Cycle 1

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Table 5 Optimized Mean Values and Optimized Standard Deviations (in ppm) of TS for All Sample Types and Cycles

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Table 6 Calculated Parameters for All TS Data for Cycles 1–3

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Table 7 Percent TS for Different Collection Angles Compared with the TS for a Collection Angle of 2°–85° in Accord with Standard ISO/DIS 13696a

Equations (1)

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TS=VscatterRc/Vc,

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