Abstract

The effect of absorption of the sample medium on the surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics is analyzed by approximate analytical and exact numerical models. We show that absorption leads to specific changes in the value of reflectivity near the SPR angle and that these can be used for absorbance detection. The strongest absorption-induced change in reflectivity occurs at two values of metal film thickness (28 and 55 nm for a gold film and λ = 632.8 nm). Using a sample solution of Rhodamine 700 in ethanol, we measured the characteristic changes in the SPR angle and in reflectivity over the wavelength interval encompassing the strong absorption band at 610–680 nm. The possibility of the simultaneous determination of the refractive index and absorption from SPR measurements is demonstrated and has the potential for substance-specific detection.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung Optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflaechenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1988).
  3. K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, S. Minami, “Optical chemical sensor based on surface plasmon measurement,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1160–1163 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Van Gent, P. V. Lambeck, H. J. M. Kreuvel, G. J. Gerritsma, E. J. R. Sudhölter, D. N. Reinhoudt, T. J. A. Popma, “Optimization of a chemooptical surface plasmon resonance based sensor,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2843–2849 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. L. Earp, R. E. Dessy, “Surface plasmon resonance,” in Commercial Biosensors: Applications to Clinical, Bioprocess, and Enviromental Samples, G. Ramsay, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–164.
  6. Internet address for BIAcore AB is http://www.biacore.com/scientific/reflist.html .
  7. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, “Anomalous dispersion of surface plasma oscillations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1147–1151 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Swalen, “Optical wave spectroscopy of molecules at surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 1438–1445 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).
  11. S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, G. Tollin, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating the biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane protein systems. I: Theoretical principles,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1331, 117–129 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Kano, S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon sensor for absorption-sensitivity enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5166–5170 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. E. de Bruijin, J. Greve, “Determination of dielectric permittivity and thickness of metal layer from a surface plasmon resonance experiment,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1974–1978 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Amita, M. Ichise, T. Kojima, “Overall characteristics of a liquid chromatographic detection system using a silicon photodiode array,” J. Chromatog. 243, 89–98 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik GmbH, Goettingen, Germany, 1986), Section III, p. 148.
  20. D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1972), p. 105.
  21. Melles Griot, Catalog (Melles Griot Inc., Irvine, Calif., 1995–1996), pp. 4–9; H. Bach, N. Neuroth, eds., The Properties of Optical Glass (Springer, New York, 1995).

1997 (1)

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, G. Tollin, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating the biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane protein systems. I: Theoretical principles,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1331, 117–129 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. Amita, M. Ichise, T. Kojima, “Overall characteristics of a liquid chromatographic detection system using a silicon photodiode array,” J. Chromatog. 243, 89–98 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical wave spectroscopy of molecules at surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 1438–1445 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung Optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflaechenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Amita, T.

T. Amita, M. Ichise, T. Kojima, “Overall characteristics of a liquid chromatographic detection system using a silicon photodiode array,” J. Chromatog. 243, 89–98 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bartholomew, D. U.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, U.

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik GmbH, Goettingen, Germany, 1986), Section III, p. 148.

Brillante, A.

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, L. W.

R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carr, R.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Bruijin, H. E.

Dessy, R. E.

R. L. Earp, R. E. Dessy, “Surface plasmon resonance,” in Commercial Biosensors: Applications to Clinical, Bioprocess, and Enviromental Samples, G. Ramsay, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–164.

Earp, R. L.

R. L. Earp, R. E. Dessy, “Surface plasmon resonance,” in Commercial Biosensors: Applications to Clinical, Bioprocess, and Enviromental Samples, G. Ramsay, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–164.

Elkind, J.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, C.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsma, G. J.

Gordon, J. G.

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Griot, Melles

Melles Griot, Catalog (Melles Griot Inc., Irvine, Calif., 1995–1996), pp. 4–9; H. Bach, N. Neuroth, eds., The Properties of Optical Glass (Springer, New York, 1995).

Ichise, M.

T. Amita, M. Ichise, T. Kojima, “Overall characteristics of a liquid chromatographic detection system using a silicon photodiode array,” J. Chromatog. 243, 89–98 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. S.

S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, R. C.

S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jung, C.

R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Karlsen, S. R.

S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kojima, T.

T. Amita, M. Ichise, T. Kojima, “Overall characteristics of a liquid chromatographic detection system using a silicon photodiode array,” J. Chromatog. 243, 89–98 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung Optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflaechenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kreuvel, H. J. M.

Kukanskis, K.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, G. Tollin, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating the biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane protein systems. I: Theoretical principles,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1331, 117–129 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsubara, K.

Melendez, J.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Philpott, M. R.

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, “Anomalous dispersion of surface plasma oscillations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1147–1151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Popma, T. J. A.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1988).

Reinhoudt, D. N.

Salamon, Z.

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, G. Tollin, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating the biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane protein systems. I: Theoretical principles,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1331, 117–129 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santo, R.

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sudhölter, E. J. R.

Swalen, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Swalen, “Optical wave spectroscopy of molecules at surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 1438–1445 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, “Anomalous dispersion of surface plasma oscillations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1147–1151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tollin, G.

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, G. Tollin, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating the biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane protein systems. I: Theoretical principles,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1331, 117–129 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Gent, J.

Woodbury, R.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, R. Santo, “Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 669–672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

Z. Salamon, H. A. Macleod, G. Tollin, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating the biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane protein systems. I: Theoretical principles,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1331, 117–129 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chromatog. (1)

T. Amita, M. Ichise, T. Kojima, “Overall characteristics of a liquid chromatographic detection system using a silicon photodiode array,” J. Chromatog. 243, 89–98 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Electron. (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical wave spectroscopy of molecules at surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 83, 1438–1445 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

S. R. Karlsen, K. S. Johnston, R. C. Jorgenson, S. S. Yee, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index and absorbance spectra of chemical samples using surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 24–25, 747–749 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 35, 1–5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson, C. Jung, S. S. Yee, L. W. Burgess, “Multiwavelength surface plasmon resonance as an optical sensor for characterizing the complex refractive indices of chemical samples,” Sens. Actuators B 13–14, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung Optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflaechenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1988).

R. L. Earp, R. E. Dessy, “Surface plasmon resonance,” in Commercial Biosensors: Applications to Clinical, Bioprocess, and Enviromental Samples, G. Ramsay, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 99–164.

Internet address for BIAcore AB is http://www.biacore.com/scientific/reflist.html .

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik GmbH, Goettingen, Germany, 1986), Section III, p. 148.

D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1972), p. 105.

Melles Griot, Catalog (Melles Griot Inc., Irvine, Calif., 1995–1996), pp. 4–9; H. Bach, N. Neuroth, eds., The Properties of Optical Glass (Springer, New York, 1995).

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