Abstract

We present a new optical system design for a projector with a single digital micromirror device (Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device) that improves on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency, uniformity, and contrast while yielding a low-profile and compact system. A rod integrator is incorporated with a compact relay system to maximize light efficiency and to increase illumination uniformity. The uniformity achieved by the optimized optical system was calculated to be 94%. In addition, this unique light-separator design has dual output channels to increase the image contrast by steering the off-state light away from the projection lens. This projector design provides very efficient light utilization, and we discuss how the geometrical optical efficiency of the system can be boosted to approach the theoretical maximum.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. J. Hornbeck, “Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications,” in Projection Display III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 27–40 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, B. R. Critchley, “A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD),” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 907–910.
  3. H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, P. M. Heyman, “The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device,” in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 677–680.
  4. G. S. Pettitt, A. DeLong, A. Harriman, “Colorimetric performance analysis for a sequential color DLP projector system,” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 510–513.
  5. P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,1997), pp. 19–24.
  6. S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.
  7. Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.
  8. H. J. van den Brandt, A. G. Timmers, “Optical illumination system and projection apparatus comprising such a system,” U. S. patent5,098,184 (24March1992).
  9. P. J. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, “High contrast illumination system for video projection,” U.S. patent5,442,414 (15August1995).
  10. C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.
  11. K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).
  12. Y. Kudo, K. Matsumoto, “Illumination optical device,” U.S. patent4,918,583 (17April1990).
  13. C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, 1993), pp. 537–539.
  14. M. S. Brennesholtz, “Light collection efficiency for light valve projection systems,” in Projection Display II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 71–79 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).
  16. W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).
  17. Breault Research Organization, Inc., ASAP 6.0, Breault Research Organization, Inc., 6400 East Grant Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85715, USA.
  18. D. M. Rutan, C. N. Stewart, D. J. Savage, “Low wattage long lift short arc metal halide lighting systems for LCD projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 261–264.
  19. A. Csaszar, “Data projection equipment and large-screen data displays, test, and performance measurements,” in SID ’91 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1991), pp. 265–267.

Alt, P. M.

P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,1997), pp. 19–24.

Brennesholtz, M. S.

M. S. Brennesholtz, “Light collection efficiency for light valve projection systems,” in Projection Display II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 71–79 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burstyn, H. C.

H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, P. M. Heyman, “The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device,” in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 677–680.

Chang, C. M.

C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.

K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).

Chen, K. V.

C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.

K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).

Chen, S. M.

K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).

C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.

Critchley, B. R.

G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, B. R. Critchley, “A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD),” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 907–910.

Csaszar, A.

A. Csaszar, “Data projection equipment and large-screen data displays, test, and performance measurements,” in SID ’91 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1991), pp. 265–267.

Daijogo, A.

S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.

DeLong, A.

G. S. Pettitt, A. DeLong, A. Harriman, “Colorimetric performance analysis for a sequential color DLP projector system,” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 510–513.

Fielding, R. G.

G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, B. R. Critchley, “A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD),” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 907–910.

Harriman, A.

G. S. Pettitt, A. DeLong, A. Harriman, “Colorimetric performance analysis for a sequential color DLP projector system,” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 510–513.

Heyman, P. M.

H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, P. M. Heyman, “The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device,” in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 677–680.

Hornbeck, L. J.

L. J. Hornbeck, “Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications,” in Projection Display III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, 1993), pp. 537–539.

Itoh, Y.

Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.

Janssen, P. J.

P. J. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, “High contrast illumination system for video projection,” U.S. patent5,442,414 (15August1995).

Kamakura, H.

Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.

Kavanagh, M.

G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, B. R. Critchley, “A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD),” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 907–910.

Kida, H.

S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.

Kondo, M.

S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.

Kudo, Y.

Y. Kudo, K. Matsumoto, “Illumination optical device,” U.S. patent4,918,583 (17April1990).

Lin, K. W.

C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.

K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).

Loiseaux, B.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, 1993), pp. 537–539.

Maemura, Y.

S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.

Matsumoto, K.

Y. Kudo, K. Matsumoto, “Illumination optical device,” U.S. patent4,918,583 (17April1990).

Meyerhofer, D.

H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, P. M. Heyman, “The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device,” in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 677–680.

Moss, G. H.

G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, B. R. Critchley, “A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD),” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 907–910.

Nakamura, J. I.

Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.

Nicolas, C.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, 1993), pp. 537–539.

Okamoto, N.

Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.

Pettitt, G. S.

G. S. Pettitt, A. DeLong, A. Harriman, “Colorimetric performance analysis for a sequential color DLP projector system,” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 510–513.

Rutan, D. M.

D. M. Rutan, C. N. Stewart, D. J. Savage, “Low wattage long lift short arc metal halide lighting systems for LCD projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 261–264.

Savage, D. J.

D. M. Rutan, C. N. Stewart, D. J. Savage, “Low wattage long lift short arc metal halide lighting systems for LCD projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 261–264.

Shieh, H. P.

K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).

C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.

Shikama, S.

S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.

Shimizu, J. A.

P. J. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, “High contrast illumination system for video projection,” U.S. patent5,442,414 (15August1995).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Stewart, C. N.

D. M. Rutan, C. N. Stewart, D. J. Savage, “Low wattage long lift short arc metal halide lighting systems for LCD projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 261–264.

Timmers, A. G.

H. J. van den Brandt, A. G. Timmers, “Optical illumination system and projection apparatus comprising such a system,” U. S. patent5,098,184 (24March1992).

van den Brandt, H. J.

H. J. van den Brandt, A. G. Timmers, “Optical illumination system and projection apparatus comprising such a system,” U. S. patent5,098,184 (24March1992).

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).

Winston, R.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).

Yoneno, K.

Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.

Other (19)

L. J. Hornbeck, “Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications,” in Projection Display III, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3013, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, B. R. Critchley, “A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD),” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 907–910.

H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, P. M. Heyman, “The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device,” in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 677–680.

G. S. Pettitt, A. DeLong, A. Harriman, “Colorimetric performance analysis for a sequential color DLP projector system,” in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 510–513.

P. M. Alt, “Single crystal silicon for high resolution displays,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,1997), pp. 19–24.

S. Shikama, H. Kida, A. Daijogo, Y. Maemura, M. Kondo, “A compact LCD rear projector using a new bent-lens optical system,” in SID ’93 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1993), pp. 295–298.

Y. Itoh, J. I. Nakamura, K. Yoneno, H. Kamakura, N. Okamoto, “Ultra-high-efficiency LC projector using a polarized light illumination system,” in SID ’97 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1997), pp. 993–996.

H. J. van den Brandt, A. G. Timmers, “Optical illumination system and projection apparatus comprising such a system,” U. S. patent5,098,184 (24March1992).

P. J. Janssen, J. A. Shimizu, “High contrast illumination system for video projection,” U.S. patent5,442,414 (15August1995).

C. M. Chang, K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, “A uniform rectangular illumination optical system for liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 257–260.

K. W. Lin, K. V. Chen, S. M. Chen, H. P. Shieh, C. M. Chang, “High optical throughput liquid-crystal projection display system,” U.S. patent5,748,376 (5May1998).

Y. Kudo, K. Matsumoto, “Illumination optical device,” U.S. patent4,918,583 (17April1990).

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Analysis of the optical components in liquid crystal projectors by their geometrical extend,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, 1993), pp. 537–539.

M. S. Brennesholtz, “Light collection efficiency for light valve projection systems,” in Projection Display II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 71–79 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).

Breault Research Organization, Inc., ASAP 6.0, Breault Research Organization, Inc., 6400 East Grant Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85715, USA.

D. M. Rutan, C. N. Stewart, D. J. Savage, “Low wattage long lift short arc metal halide lighting systems for LCD projectors,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1996), pp. 261–264.

A. Csaszar, “Data projection equipment and large-screen data displays, test, and performance measurements,” in SID ’91 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1991), pp. 265–267.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the projection system with a single DMD chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illumination system layout.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Arrangement of the DMD chip, the light separator, and the projection lens. (a) On-state beam is directed into the entrance pupil of the projection lens. (b) Off-state beam and (c) specular beam are steered away from projection lens at roughly 90°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of an alternative optical layout as implemented within a low-profile package.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram showing the ellipsoidal reflector and the arc cylinder.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Collection and coupling efficiencies ηCOLLECTION and ηCOUPLING versus Z ARC and D ARC.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Geometrical optical efficiency ηGEO versus Z ARC and D ARC.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated image of the virtual sources arrayed at the entrance surface of the rod. A circular grid overlaid on the source array represents the collection angle of the projection lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated irradiance distribution on the screen (1.16 m × 0.87 m).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Horizontal and (b) vertical profiles of the normalized screen irradiance. Note that the projection axis is titled upward above the horizontal to raise the projected image, and thus the vertical profile is not symmetrical.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Efficiency of the DMD

Tables Icon

Table 3 Spectral Efficiency of the Opitcal Elements

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FSYS=ηDMD×ηSPEC×ηGEO×FLAMP.
IARCθ, ϕ=Io sin θ,
FMAX= IARCθ, ϕdΩ=πIoθOUT-θIN-sin2θOUT-sin2θIN2.

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