Abstract

Absorption of thin Al2O3 films was measured at 193 nm with an ArF-laser calorimeter. In addition to the expected high linear absorption coefficient, we found, for the first time to our knowledge, that two-photon absorption and transient color-center formation are nonnegligible loss channels in thin films at 193 nm. The nonlinear absorption coefficient is of the order of several times 10-4 cm/W.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, R. M. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1. Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Zöller, “Temperature stability of optical coatings produced by plasma and ion assisted evaporation processes,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 2–4.
  4. E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color center formation in UV-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).
  5. E. Eva, K. Mann, “Nonlinear absorption phenomena in optical materials for the UV-spectral range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109, 52–57 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, “Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications,” Opt. Lett. 24, 58–60 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. R. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998,” H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–623 (1998).
  9. E. Eva, K. Mann, “Characterizing the absorption and aging behavior of DUV optical material by high-resolution excimer laser calorimetry,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1055–1061 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. ISO11551, “Test method for absorptance of optical laser components,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1997).
  11. S. Schippel, Layertec GmbH, Blankenhainer Strasse 169, D-99441 Mellingen, Germany (personal communication).

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Nonlinear absorption phenomena in optical materials for the UV-spectral range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109, 52–57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color center formation in UV-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

1995 (1)

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Anton, B.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Apel, O.

K. R. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998,” H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–623 (1998).

Bates, A. K.

Eva, E.

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Nonlinear absorption phenomena in optical materials for the UV-spectral range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109, 52–57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color center formation in UV-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Characterizing the absorption and aging behavior of DUV optical material by high-resolution excimer laser calorimetry,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1055–1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998,” H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–623 (1998).

Grenville, A.

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawasumi, T.

H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, V.

Mann, K.

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Nonlinear absorption phenomena in optical materials for the UV-spectral range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109, 52–57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color center formation in UV-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Characterizing the absorption and aging behavior of DUV optical material by high-resolution excimer laser calorimetry,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1055–1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K. R.

K. R. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998,” H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–623 (1998).

Nishioka, H.

H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, M.

Schallenberg, U. B.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schippel, S.

S. Schippel, Layertec GmbH, Blankenhainer Strasse 169, D-99441 Mellingen, Germany (personal communication).

Sedlacek, J. H. C.

Spann, J. F.

Takuma, H.

H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Torr, D. G.

Torr, R. M.

Ueda, K.

H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uhlig, H.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uttaro, R. S.

Van Peski, C.

Zöller, A.

A. Zöller, “Temperature stability of optical coatings produced by plasma and ion assisted evaporation processes,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 2–4.

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color center formation in UV-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Nonlinear absorption phenomena in optical materials for the UV-spectral range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109, 52–57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

H. Nishioka, T. Kawasumi, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, “Multiphoton absorption and avalanche processes in ultraviolet optical coatings,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 344–354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Zöller, “Temperature stability of optical coatings produced by plasma and ion assisted evaporation processes,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 2–4.

K. R. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998,” H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–623 (1998).

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Characterizing the absorption and aging behavior of DUV optical material by high-resolution excimer laser calorimetry,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1055–1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ISO11551, “Test method for absorptance of optical laser components,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1997).

S. Schippel, Layertec GmbH, Blankenhainer Strasse 169, D-99441 Mellingen, Germany (personal communication).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Logarithmic absorptance A′ as a function of energy density measured for two Al2O3 coatings, one of 200-nm (sample 27) and one of 400-nm (sample 41) thickness, upon 1-mm fused-silica substrates. The strong energy-density dependence is obvious.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Logarithmic absorptance A′ as a function of inverse repetition rate Δt = 1/f p . The dependence is due to the creation of linear absorbing transient color centers with lifetimes τlife of some milliseconds. The higher fluctuation in the data for longer Δt is due to the reduced energy coupled into the samples for low repetition rates f p = 1/Δ at constant irradiation time t Burst = 15 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contribution of transient color centers At,3.3ms to logarithmic absorptance A′ measured for several energy densities at f p = 300 Hz, τ = 14 ns. The linear slope confirms the assumption that the creation rate of the transient color centers is proportional to the energy density of the pulses.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and Nonlinear Absorptance Contributions Al and ANO and Respective Absorption Coefficients α C and β C,eff300Hz for Several Examined Thin Al2O3 Films and an Uncoated Substrate Measured at f p = 300 Hz, τ = 14 nsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fit Parameters for Fitting Logarithmic Absorptance As a Function of Repetition Rate with Eq. (12)

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI/dz=-αI-βI2,
dI/dz=-α+βI0I,
Iz=I0 exp-α+βI0z.
Izi+=Izi-exp-Ai,
IT=I0 exp-A1+αC+βC,2p+βC,tI0dC+A2+αS+βS,2p+βS,tI0dS+A3,
IT=I0 exp(-αC+βC,2p+βC,tI0dC+ALin,S+βS,2p+βS,tI0dS).
A=1-IT/I0=1-exp-Al-ANLI0=1-exp-A,
A=Al+ANLI0=-ln1-A.
A=Qabs/Qin=CeffΔT/Qin.
Ceff=Qheat/ΔT.
AtΔt=Aindn=1nburstexp-n Δtτlifetirr== Aind1-exp-Δtτlife-1-1.
A=Al+A2PH+AtΔt.
At,3.3msH=-33×10-4+8.37×10-5 mJ/cm2-1×H.
AS,t,3.3msH=-4×10-5+3.5×10-5 mJ/cm2-1×H.
AH, fp|14ns=9.05×10-2+3.01×10-4 mJ/cm2-1×H+8.37×10-5 mJ/cm2-1×H×gfp,
gfp=1-exp-fpτlife-1-1.

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