Abstract

We carried out a simulation study for the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Japanese Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment (ELISE), which is a two-wavelength backscatter lidar with three detection channels. The National Space Development Agency of Japan plans to launch the ELISE on the Mission Demonstrate Satellite 2 (MDS-2). In the simulations, the lidar return signals for the ELISE are calculated for an artificial, two-dimensional atmospheric model including different types of clouds and aerosols. The signal detection processes are simulated realistically by inclusion of various sources of noise. The lidar signals that are generated are then used as input for simulations of data analysis with inversion algorithms to investigate retrieval of the optical properties of clouds and aerosols. The results demonstrate that the ELISE can provide global data on the structures and optical properties of clouds and aerosols. We also conducted an analysis of the effects of cloud inhomogeneity on retrievals from averaged lidar profiles. We show that the effects are significant for space lidar observations of optically thick broken clouds.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. III. Light scattering by irregular ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 3–19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,219–11,235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young, “Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optically thin clouds,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7019–7031 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,575–18,587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1488–1494 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (2)

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I. Single scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 818–837 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

L. R. Poole, M. T. Osborn, Q. H. Hunt, “Lidar observations of arctic polar stratospheric clouds, 1988: signature of small, solid particles above the frost point,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 867–870 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. VI. Optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1974 (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photo-diodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

1972 (1)

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, T.

T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Asai, K.

T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, K. Asai, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kawamura, K. Tatsumi, T. Imai, “NASDA mission demonstration satellite lidar project and its sciences,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring, H. Hu, U. N. Singh, G. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3504, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanchet, J. P.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boer, G. J.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Braun, W. C.

A. Notari, U. N. Singh, T. D. Wilkerson, W. C. Braun, “Optical properties of high clouds,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 210–212.

Brogniez, G.

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1488–1494 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, A. F.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Cho, B. S.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photo-diodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

Couch, R. H.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deque, M.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Derr, V. E.

Desbois, M.

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J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

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Flamant, P. H.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
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J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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Y. Sasano, K. Asai, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kawamura, K. Tatsumi, T. Imai, “NASDA mission demonstration satellite lidar project and its sciences,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring, H. Hu, U. N. Singh, G. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3504, 2–7 (1998).
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T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
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Y. Sasano, K. Asai, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kawamura, K. Tatsumi, T. Imai, “NASDA mission demonstration satellite lidar project and its sciences,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring, H. Hu, U. N. Singh, G. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3504, 2–7 (1998).
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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
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Kobayashi, T.

T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
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M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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Shamanaev, V. S.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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Singh, U. N.

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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
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Stefanutti, L.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,575–18,587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrecht, W.

Sugimoto, N.

Y. Sasano, K. Asai, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kawamura, K. Tatsumi, T. Imai, “NASDA mission demonstration satellite lidar project and its sciences,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring, H. Hu, U. N. Singh, G. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3504, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, “Theoretical and experimental study of inversion algorithms for space lidar observation of clouds and aerosols,” in Atmospheric Propagation, Adaptive Systems, and Lidar Techniques for Remote Sensing II, A. D. Devir, A. Kohle, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3494, 296–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. III. Light scattering by irregular ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 3–19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I. Single scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 818–837 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Tanioka, N.

T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tatsumi, K.

Y. Sasano, K. Asai, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kawamura, K. Tatsumi, T. Imai, “NASDA mission demonstration satellite lidar project and its sciences,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring, H. Hu, U. N. Singh, G. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3504, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K. E.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thro, P.-Y.

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Treut, H. L.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Trouillet, V.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Tuck, A. F.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Wandinger, U.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Washington, W. M.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Webb, P. P.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photo-diodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

Weitkamp, C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wetherald, R. T.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wielicki, B. A.

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, T. D.

A. Notari, U. N. Singh, T. D. Wilkerson, W. C. Braun, “Optical properties of high clouds,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 210–212.

Winker, D.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wooldridge, C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yagai, I.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamano, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Young, S. A.

S. A. Young, “Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optically thin clouds,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7019–7031 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. H.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

V. E. Derr, “Estimation of the extinction coefficient of clouds from multiwavelength lidar backscatter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2310–2314 (1980).
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J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1984).
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P. B. Russell, B. M. Morley, J. M. Livingston, G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, “Orbiting lidar simulations. 1. Aerosol and cloud measurements by an independent-wavelength technique,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1541–1553 (1982).
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K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Murthy, “Relationship between backscattering and extinction coefficients of aerosols with application to turbid atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3059–3071 (1991).
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S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1488–1494 (1992).
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S. A. Young, “Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optically thin clouds,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7019–7031 (1995).
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H. Jaeger, D. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987,” Appl. Opt. 30, 127–138 (1991).
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Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. Winker, M. D. Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, R. M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D.-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1634–1654 (1994).
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M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
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Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

L. R. Poole, M. T. Osborn, Q. H. Hunt, “Lidar observations of arctic polar stratospheric clouds, 1988: signature of small, solid particles above the frost point,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 867–870 (1988).
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E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. 1. Polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

A. Ansmann, J. Bosenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linne, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
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K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
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C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. VI. Optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
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Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I. Single scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 818–837 (1989).
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Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. III. Light scattering by irregular ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 3–19 (1995).
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J. Geophys. Res. (5)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
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G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,219–11,235 (1995).
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D. G. Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, “One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica). 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,575–18,587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. D. Genio, M. Deque, V. Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. L. Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, M. H. Zhang, “Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,601–16,615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May 1982 at Nagasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, M. P. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” Proc. IEEE 84, 164–179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photo-diodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

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L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” Environ. Res. Papers 285 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, T. Aoyagi, “NASDA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 177–183 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, K. Asai, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kawamura, K. Tatsumi, T. Imai, “NASDA mission demonstration satellite lidar project and its sciences,” in Optical Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring, H. Hu, U. N. Singh, G. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3504, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Notari, U. N. Singh, T. D. Wilkerson, W. C. Braun, “Optical properties of high clouds,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 210–212.

J. M. Pelon, M. Desbois, P. H. Flamant, H. L. Treut, G. Seze, M. Doutriaux, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, S. Elouragini, C. Flamant, F. Lieutaud, J.-L. Raffaelli, R. Valentin, “A study of the potential contribution of a backscatter lidar to climatological studies,” (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, “Theoretical and experimental study of inversion algorithms for space lidar observation of clouds and aerosols,” in Atmospheric Propagation, Adaptive Systems, and Lidar Techniques for Remote Sensing II, A. D. Devir, A. Kohle, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3494, 296–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Theoretically calculated lidar ratios S and (b) wavelength dependence parameters α of backscatter coefficient of several aerosol types as a function of relative humidity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Artificial atmospheric model: (a) backscatter distribution at 527 nm and (b) lidar ratios. A wavelength dependence of λ0 for clouds and λ-1 for aerosols is assumed. A stratospheric aerosol layer is centered at 20-km altitude; a Kosa layer is 3–5 km in altitude and 0–140-km in horizontal distance; a PBL lies below 1.2-km altitude; a cirrus layer is at 10–12-km altitude; and several low and mid-altitude water clouds are distributed below the cirrus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated lidar return signals (photoelectron counts) from the model atmosphere shown in Fig. 2. Each profile was integrated for 20 laser shots; the vertical resolution is 100 m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Modeled backscatter profiles at two wavelengths at a horizontal distance of 0, (b) lidar return profiles (scattering signal and background light) in units of photoelectron counts, (c) SNR’s. The integration number of laser shots is 20.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation results for ELISE calibrations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of retrieved (a) stratospheric aerosol backscatter and (b) extinction profiles at 560 km in the model atmosphere shown in Fig. 2. The lidar signal inversion was initiated at 32-km altitude with Eq. (13).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IBC for the stratosphere (from 13- to 30-km altitude) from the PC 527- and 1053-nm signals shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Retrieved backscatter coefficient profiles from 1053-nm PC and AN channel signals when two-component forward inversion is used [Eq. (13)]. The scale is the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Backscatter profiles at distances of (a) 70 km, (b) 420 km, and (c) 560 km. Note the different scales for the backscatter coefficients.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Two lidar profiles of the PC 527-nm channel, at 14- and 175-km horizontal distances in the model atmosphere shown in Fig. 2. The cirrus optical depth can be derived by comparison of the signals below 10 km in the cirrus profile at 14 km with those in the cirrus-free profile at 175 km.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Retrieved cirrus optical depths from the 527-nm PC channel signals and lidar ratios from the 1053-nm PC and AN channel signals. Lidar profiles were smoothed by a sliding window with a width of 14 km.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Examples of retrieved backscatter profiles at (a) 70 km and (b) 560 km. Note the different scales for the backscatter coefficients.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Lidar ratio retrieved with the Sasano–Browell two-wavelength method as a function of optical depth at 527 nm for a model aerosol. RH, relative humidity.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Two-wavelength data analysis of the Kosa layer at 3–5-km altitude and 0–100 km horizontal distance.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Example of simulations of the effect of cloud inhomogeneity on cloud optical property retrievals from averaged lidar profiles. n 0, Average number of laser shots; n 1, number of laser shots that hit the cloud. (b) An optically thin case, (c) an optically thick case.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 ELISE Major Specifications (Design)

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Table 2 Typical Scattering Parameters of Clouds and Aerosols in Visible and Near-Infrared Regions

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Table 3 Noise Level in Lidar Signals (Photoelectron Number) Caused by the Background Lights, the Dark Counts or Noise Currents, and the Scattering Signal at 35 km

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Table 4 Minimum Backscatter Coefficients of a Homogeneous Cloud Required for Detection of Its Top and Basea

Equations (27)

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Nsr=1r2 Cβ1r+β2rT2r,
exp-r0rσ1r+σ2rdr
C=E0A0kηQcΔt2λhc.
δNr=Nsr+Nb+Nd1/2.
Nb=IbA0ΔλΔtkηQϕ2π4λhc.
δNr=Nsr+NbFm+IAPD2ΔtM2q21/2,
Nr=Nsr+δNNran,
CPC,527=1nri=H-35kmH-30kmXPC,527riβ2,527riT5272ri,
CPC,1053CPC,527=ri=H-35kmH-30km XPC,1053ri/T10532riri=H-35kmH-30km XPC,527ri/T5272ri10535274.
δCPC,527CPC,527=ri=H-35kmH-30kmXPC,527riβ2,527riT5272ri21n0δXPC,527riXPC,527ri2+δβ2,527riβ2,527ri21/2ri=H-35kmH-30kmXriPC,527β2,527riT5272ri,
δCPC,1053CPC,1053=δCPC,527CPC,5272+ri=H-35kmH-30kmXPC,1053riT10532ri2δXPC,1053riXPC,1053ri2n0ri=H-35kmH-30kmXPC,1053riT10532ri2+ri=H-35kmH-30kmXPC,527riT5272ri2δXPC,527riXPC,527ri2n0ri=H-35kmH-30kmXPC,527riT5272ri21/2.
SNR=n0NsδN,
βtmin=H-rt2CT2rt×1+1+4δNs,22rt+δNb2+δNd2n0SNR21/22 n0SNR2
βtmin=H-rt2CT2rt×Fm+Fm2+4δNs,22rt+δNb2+δNd2n0SNR21/22 n0SNR2
β1r=-β2r+Xrexp-2S1-S2r0r β2rdrCT2r0-2S1r0r Xrexp-2S1-S2r0r β2rdrdr.
β1i+1r=-β2r+Xrexp-2ηS1i-S2rtr β2rdrCT2rt-2ηS1irtr Xrexp-2ηS1i-S2rtr β2rdrdr,
ηS1i+1=ητcrtrb β1i+1rdr.
JS1=i=i1i2β1,Sriβ2,Sri-A β1,Lriβ2,Lri2,
JS1,S, S1,L=1i2-i1+1×i=i1i2β1,Sriβ1,Lri-1i2-i1+1i=i1i2β1,Sriβ1,Lri2.
Nr=CT02r2j=1n0β1,jr+β2r×exp-2 r0rηjrσ1,jr+σ2rdr,
Nr=n0CT02r2β1,effr+β2rT2r,
β1,effr=i=1n0 β1,jrT1,j2ri=1n0 T1,j2r=i=1n0 β1,jrexp-2 r0r ηjrσ1,jrdri=1n0exp-2 r0r ηjrσ1,jrdr
T2r=1n0i=1n0 Tj2r=1n0i=1n0exp-2 r0rηjrσ1,jr+σ2rdr
S1,effr=σ1,effrβ1,effr,
σ1,effr=-12ddrlnT2r-σ2r
β1,effr=-β2r+Xrexp-2 r0rS1,effr-S2β2rdrCT2r0-2 r0r S1,effrXrexp-2 r0rS1,effr-S2β2rdrdr,
ddrlnT2r=1T2rddr T2r=-2n0T2ri=1n0σ1,jr+σ2rTj2r=-2S1,0β1,effr-2σ2r,

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