Abstract

A flash-lamp-pumped Er:Cr:YSGG laser at 2.79-µm wavelength has been acousto-optically Q switched. The Q-switched pulse energy and duration depend on pump pulse level and relative Q-switching time. Limits of single-pulse operation with the given acousto-optic diffraction efficiency have been determined. Resonator length, position of the Q switch, and output mirror reflectivity have been varied to obtain high pulse energy and the shortest pulse duration in the TEM00 transverse laser mode. A maximum single-pulse energy of 27 mJ and a minimum pulse duration of 120 ns were obtained with an output mirror reflectivity of approximately 25%. The highest Q-switched single-pulse energy amounted to 52% of the free-running, fundamental mode output pulse energy.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).
  3. Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Laser 1-2-3 Data Sheet (Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc., Orlando, Fla., 1997).
  5. Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, O. Sperlich, “3 µm erbium laser with an SBS phase conjugating mirror,” in Solid State Lasers VII, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE3265, 75–82 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).
  10. E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).

1993 (1)

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).

1980 (1)

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bagdasarov, Kh. S.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Breguet, J.

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Danilov, V. P.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, O. Sperlich, “3 µm erbium laser with an SBS phase conjugating mirror,” in Solid State Lasers VII, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE3265, 75–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forrer, M.

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kalitin, S. P.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kayser, M.

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).

Khomenko, S. I.

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Konz, F.

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Laptev, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, O. Sperlich, “3 µm erbium laser with an SBS phase conjugating mirror,” in Solid State Lasers VII, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE3265, 75–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lobachev, V. A.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W. A. R.

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malyutin, A. A.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Manenkov, A. A.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Murina, T. M.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pashinin, P. P.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Romano, V.

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saidov, Z. S.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, S.

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. A.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sperlich, O.

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, O. Sperlich, “3 µm erbium laser with an SBS phase conjugating mirror,” in Solid State Lasers VII, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE3265, 75–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Timoshechkin, M. I.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Umyskov, A. F.

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vodop’yanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).

Weber, H. P.

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhekov, V. I.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Breguet, A. F. Umyskov, W. A. R. Luthy, I. A. Shcherbakov, H. P. Weber, “Electrooptically Q-switched 2.79 µm YSGG:Cr:Er laser with intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 274–276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Schnell, V. G. Ostroumov, J. Breguet, W. A. R. Luthy, H. P. Weber, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Acoustooptic Q switching of erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1111–1114 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, M. Kayser, S. I. Khomenko, “Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 µm Q-switched by a FTIR-shutter with silicon output coupler and polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 125, 250–256 (1996).

F. Konz, M. Frenz, V. Romano, M. Forrer, H. P. Weber, “Active and passive Q-switching of a 2.79 µm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 298–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (3)

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, A. A. Manenkov, M. I. Timoshechkin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Pulse-periodic Y3Al5O12:Er3+ laser with high activator concentration,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 83–85 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, V. P. Danilov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. A. Lobachev, T. M. Murina, A. M. Prokhorov, “Giant laser radiation pulses from erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1127–1130 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Water and ethanol as bleachable radiation absorbers in a yttrium-erbium-aluminium garnett laser (λ = 2.94 µm),” Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 1049–1052 (1981).

Other (3)

Laser 1-2-3 Data Sheet (Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc., Orlando, Fla., 1997).

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, B. Liu, O. Sperlich, “3 µm erbium laser with an SBS phase conjugating mirror,” in Solid State Lasers VII, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE3265, 75–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visualization of the parameter limits between the single-pulse and the multiple-pulse Q-switched operation in a resonator configuration with an Al2O3 output mirror. The pump pulse energy, as a parameter for the different curves, increases from the bottom to the top. Single-pulse operation occurs for delay times and pump energies inside the marked (darkened) region. The corresponding delay times can be found on the horizontal axis, whereas the Q-switched pulse energies are on the vertical axis. At shorter delay times multiple pulses occur by postlasing, whereas at longer delays multiple pulses occur by prelasing. Above the upper pump limit of 45 J (characteristic for this resonator configuration) only multiple pulses can be emitted. The output energy has a maximum around the optimum delay time of 90 µs. The pulses have an energy jitter of ±5%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristic dependence of the Q-switched output pulse duration on the delay time, in a resonator configuration with an Al2O3 output mirror, at different pump pulse energy levels. All the pump pulse energy values are below the upper pump limit for single-pulse operation of 45 J. The pulse duration has a minimum of around the optimum delay time of 90 µs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output pulse energy variation with the pump pulse energy in free-running operation. The two curves were measured with a LiNbO3 mirror and an Al2O3 output mirror. The slope efficiency is higher because of the higher reflectivity LiNbO3 mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Q-switched pulse energy versus pump energy with LiNbO3 and Al2O3 output mirrors with reflectivities of 37% and 21%, respectively. The delay time was adjusted for optimum at each tuned pump pulse energy level. The solid curves represent single pulse emission; the dotted curves represent multiple pulse emission. The upper pump limit is approximately 40 J with the LiNbO3 and 45 J with the Al2O3 mirror. The maximum single-pulse energy values are 18 and 27 mJ, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the Q-switched pulse duration with the pump pulse energy. We created the curve in a resonator configuration with the Al2O3 output mirror by adjusting the delay time to the optimal delay time for each pump level.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser threshold energy values for free-running and Q-switched modes and for the upper pump limit for single-pulse Q-switched operation with four different output mirrors. The data points are connected to provide a visual picture of the decreasing trend of these characteristic pump energy values when the output reflectivity increases.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum pulse energies emitted in a single Q-switched peak and the corresponding half-width values from four different output mirrors. The data points are connected to provide a visual picture of the variation of the output pulse parameters with the output mirror reflectivity. The maximum single-pulse energy and the minimum pulse duration, as well as the maximum pulse power, were obtained with the Al2O3 mirror, with a reflectivity of approximately 24%. We obtained each data point by averaging at least 5000 measured values. The fluctuation of the values is represented by error bars. The pulse energy had a jitter of between 5% and 15%, whereas the corresponding half-width values fluctuated by as much as 10–25%. Despite the relatively high fluctuation, the dependence of the pulse energy and duration on output reflectivity is conclusive based on the measured values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Curves represent the characteristic dependence of the Q-switched pulse energy on the delay time with different output mirrors at a pump level near the upper limit in each setup. The curves have a peak at the optimum delay time, which, however, also vary with the output mirror reflectivity.

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