Abstract

The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) has recently been developed to provide high-accuracy wave-front characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Here we describe an enhanced implementation of the PS/PDI that significantly extends its measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wave front and flare. PS/PDI-based flare characterization of two recently fabricated EUV 10×-reduction lithographic optical systems is presented.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif.1997).
  5. E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.
  17. R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (5)

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, “Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3523–3533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14(Suppl. 14-1), 351–356 (1975).

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

1933 (1)

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).

Attwood, D.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bjorkholm, J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bokor, J.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozman, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Cardinale, G.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Cobb, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P. E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Folk, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Gaughan, R.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K. A.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, “Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3523–3533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif.1997).

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 72–80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Henderson, C.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Himel, M. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Hudyma, R.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Jin, P. S.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Koike, M.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

LaFontaine, B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Lee, S. H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Linnik, W.

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).

MacDowell, A. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Malinowski, M. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Medecki, H.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, “Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3523–3533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nissen, R. P.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

O’Connell, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, R. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14(Suppl. 14-1), 351–356 (1975).

Spector, S. J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spence, P. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Spiller, E.

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14(Suppl. 14-1), 351–356 (1975).

Stewart, K.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R. H.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Sweat, W. C.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Tan, Z.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tejnil, E.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennant, D.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Tichenor, D.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Underwood, J.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Upatnieks, J.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

White, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Wilkerson, G. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Williams, J.

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Wood, O. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (5)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14(Suppl. 14-1), 351–356 (1975).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR (1)

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).

Other (7)

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 72–80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif.1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PS/PDI. Both wave-front- and flare-measuring image-plane masks are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the 3 µm × 30 µm flare mask used for the measurement presented here. The mask contains two orthogonal windows, allowing anisotropic effects to be measured. Support bars were added to the windows to prevent the thin open-stenciled membrane from rupturing. To mitigate the obscuring effect that these support bars have on the measurement, the reference pinhole is displaced from the window center in the direction parallel to the long axis of the window. We further mitigate potential obscuration problems by providing two pinholes that allow separate measurements to be performed where the PSF is displaced relative to the window by the pinhole separation, which is 2.5 µm. The small (0.3-µm-wide) protrusions in the center window portion were added as alignment aids.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Logarithmically scaled image of the Fourier transform of a representative hologram from the phase-shifting series. The Fourier-transform image represents the reconstructed image of the image-plane distribution. The dashed line highlights one of the holographic twin images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Logarithmically scaled image of the dual-domain-reconstructed intensity PSF from optic B1. The PSF shown is an average of three independent measurements. Invalid-data regions due to image-plane window obscuration are masked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the scatter-energy density as a function of radial separation from the PSF peak determined by the PS/PDI- and the profilometry-based methods, respectively (optic B1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated flare in an isolated line as a function of linewidth with a 250-µm-radius image-field size. Also shown is the figure-corrected flare derived by removal of the flare that would be calculated, given a smooth yet aberrated optic. For the high-quality optics under consideration here this is essentially the flare one would calculate from an ideal Airy pattern. The figure-corrected flare calls out the flare caused by roughness alone (optic B1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the scatter-energy density as a function of radial separation from the PSF peak determined by the PS/PDI- and the profilometry-based methods, respectively (optic B2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated flare in an isolated line as a function of linewidth with a 250-µm-radius image-field size. Also shown is the figure-corrected flare (optic B2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Shown are 8-µm EUV scatterometry edge scan results for optic B1. The data have been normalized to the centered position detector current. The flare in a 4-µm line determined by this method is 4.5%.

Equations (2)

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Sr=12πr PSFr, θdθ.
flare=Et-EsEt,

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