Abstract

The nonlinear diffraction property of a volume grating written by two-wave mixing in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal is applied in a coherent image processing system to obtain real-time image edge enhancement as well as edge-enhanced optical correlation. The theoretical analysis of the correlator is given, and the experimental results of optical correlation are presented, which are compared with the computer-simulated results.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 287–318.
  2. L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, A. Grunnet-Jensen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), Chap. 12, pp. 372–399.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Liang, Z. Q. Wang, G. G. Mu, J. H. Guan, C. M. Cartwright, “Diffraction properties of transmission photorefractive volume grating in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5552–5555 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, “Real-time coherent object edge reconstruction with Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2671–2672 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Feinberg, “Real-time edge enhancement using the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 5, 330–332 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).
  13. Z. Q. Wang, H. Zhang, C. M. Cartwright, M. S. Ding, N. J. Cook, W. A. Gillespie, “Edge enhancement by use of moving gratings in a bismuth silicon oxide crystal and its application to optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4449–4456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1993

Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).

1992

C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, “Real-time edge enhancement using the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 5, 330–332 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

Bian, S.

Campbell, S.

Cartwright, C. M.

B. L. Liang, Z. Q. Wang, G. G. Mu, J. H. Guan, C. M. Cartwright, “Diffraction properties of transmission photorefractive volume grating in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5552–5555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, H. Zhang, C. M. Cartwright, M. S. Ding, N. J. Cook, W. A. Gillespie, “Edge enhancement by use of moving gratings in a bismuth silicon oxide crystal and its application to optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4449–4456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).

C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conners, L. M.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Connors, L.

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cook, N. J.

Ding, M. S.

Feinberg, J.

Foote, P.

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Frejlich, J.

Gillespie, W. A.

Z. Q. Wang, H. Zhang, C. M. Cartwright, M. S. Ding, N. J. Cook, W. A. Gillespie, “Edge enhancement by use of moving gratings in a bismuth silicon oxide crystal and its application to optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4449–4456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).

C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jensen, A.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, A. Grunnet-Jensen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), Chap. 12, pp. 372–399.

Guan, J. H.

Hall, T. J.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herriau, J. P.

Hou, F.

Huignard, J. P.

Jaura, R.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 287–318.

Laycock, L. C.

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liang, B. L.

Liu, S.

McCall, M. W.

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mu, G. G.

Petts, C. R.

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, A. Grunnet-Jensen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), Chap. 12, pp. 372–399.

Soutar, C.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).

C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toote, P. D.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Q.

B. L. Liang, Z. Q. Wang, G. G. Mu, J. H. Guan, C. M. Cartwright, “Diffraction properties of transmission photorefractive volume grating in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5552–5555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, H. Zhang, C. M. Cartwright, M. S. Ding, N. J. Cook, W. A. Gillespie, “Edge enhancement by use of moving gratings in a bismuth silicon oxide crystal and its application to optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4449–4456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).

C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, A. Grunnet-Jensen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), Chap. 12, pp. 372–399.

White, J. O.

J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Yang, K.

Yang, M.

Yariv, A.

J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 287–318.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. O. White, A. Yariv, “Real-time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

C. Soutar, Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, “Real-time optical intensity correlator using photorefractive BSO and a liquid crystal television,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 761–769 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Optik

Z. Q. Wang, C. Soutar, W. A. Gillespie, C. M. Cartwright, “Real-time edge-enhanced object correlation using incoherent readout of photorefractive BSO,” Optik 93, 157–162 (1993).

Prog. Quantum Electron.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Connors, P. Foote, T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. C. Laycock, M. W. McCall, C. R. Petts, “Fidility of real-time correlation by four-wave mixing,” in 1984 European Conference on Optics, Optical Systems, and Applications, B. Bolger, H. A. Ferwerda, eds., Proc. SPIE492, 361–369 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1998), Chap. 11, pp. 287–318.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, A. Grunnet-Jensen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), Chap. 12, pp. 372–399.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. BS, beam splitter; RF, red-color filter; Ar+, argon-ion laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency η as a function of the total intensity of the object and the reference beams (I S + I P ): asterisk, m = 0.43 (I S /I P = 1:20); diamond, m = 0.98 (I S /I P = 2:3); triangle, m = 0.1 (I S /I P = 1:400); circle, m = 0.28 (I S /I P = 50:1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency η as a function of the fringe modulation m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstructed images: (a) reconstructed image without edge enhancement with writing beam ratio I S /I P = 0.01, (b) reconstructed edge-enhanced image with writing beam ratio I S /I P = 0.1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the optical correlation: (a) optical correlation result without edge enhancement, (b) optical correlation result with edge enhancement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional plots of the optical correlation results shown in Fig. 5.: (a) 3-D plots of Fig. 5(a), (b) 3-D plots of Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output of the computer simulations: (a) without edge enhancement, (b) with edge enhancement.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ou, v=ox1, y1exp-i 2πλ514f1ux1+vy1×dx1dy1,
Ru, v=R0 expi2π/λ514u sin θ,
tu, v  γOu, vR*u, v,
tedu, v  γOedu, vR*u, v,
Eedu, v=ted*u, vR*u, v.
gedx3, y3=Eedu, vexpi 2πλ633f3ux3+vy3×dudv,
gedx3, y3=oedx3, y3,
Eu, v=t*u, vox2, y2×exp-i 2πλ633f2ux2+vy2dx2dy2.
gx3, y3=Eu, vexpi 2πλ633f3ux3+vy3dudv.
gx3, y3= Ru, vO*u, vOu, v×expi 2πλ633f3ux3+vy3dudv,
gedx3, y3= Ru, vOed*u, vOedu, v×expi 2πλ633f3ux3+vy3dudv,

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