Abstract

A potentially ultrafast optical analog-to-digital (A/D) converter scheme is proposed and was partly studied experimentally. In the A/D converter scheme the input signal controls the wavelength of a diode laser, whose output beam is incident on a grating. The beam from the grating hits a diffractive optical element in an array. The wavelength determines which element is illuminated. Each element fans out a unique spot-pattern bit code to be read out in parallel by individual detectors. In the experiment all patterns but one from 64 array elements were read out correctly.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Baringer, J. Jensen, L. Burns, B. Walden, “3-bit, 8GS/s flash ADC,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM 1996), (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 64–67.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.
  4. R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. L. Shoop, J. W. Goodman, “High resolution optical A/D conversion using oversampling and interpolative coding,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 613–617.
  6. F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.
  8. P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.
  9. M. W. Farn, “New iterative algorithm for the design of phase-only gratings,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 34–42 (1991).
  10. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–570 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 103–107 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Pala, L. Thylén, “High speed A/D conversion utilizing wavelength modulation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (to be published).

1999 (1)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ainspan, H.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Asbeck, P. M.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bäckbom, L.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Baringer, C.

C. Baringer, J. Jensen, L. Burns, B. Walden, “3-bit, 8GS/s flash ADC,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM 1996), (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 64–67.
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berglind, E.

P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Burghartz, J.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Burns, L.

C. Baringer, J. Jensen, L. Burns, B. Walden, “3-bit, 8GS/s flash ADC,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM 1996), (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 64–67.
[CrossRef]

Chang, M. C. F.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, J. J.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dolan, M.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Ekberg, M.

Farn, M. W.

M. W. Farn, “New iterative algorithm for the design of phase-only gratings,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 34–42 (1991).

Goodman, J. W.

B. L. Shoop, J. W. Goodman, “High resolution optical A/D conversion using oversampling and interpolative coding,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 613–617.

Harame, D.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Hård, S.

Huang, R. T.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, K.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Jensen, J.

C. Baringer, J. Jensen, L. Burns, B. Walden, “3-bit, 8GS/s flash ADC,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM 1996), (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 64–67.
[CrossRef]

Klinga, T.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Knudsen, K. L.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, M.

Leonberger, F. J.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajeff, F.

Nilsson, B.

Nilsson, S.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.

Nubling, R. B.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pala, C.

C. Pala, L. Thylén, “High speed A/D conversion utilizing wavelength modulation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (to be published).

Pierson, R. L.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, K.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rigole, P.-J.

P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Shell, M.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.

Shin, H.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Shoop, B. L.

B. L. Shoop, J. W. Goodman, “High resolution optical A/D conversion using oversampling and interpolative coding,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 613–617.

Soyuer, M.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Stålnacke, B.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Stoltz, B.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

Thylén, L.

C. Pala, L. Thylén, “High speed A/D conversion utilizing wavelength modulation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (to be published).

Walden, B.

C. Baringer, J. Jensen, L. Burns, B. Walden, “3-bit, 8GS/s flash ADC,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM 1996), (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 64–67.
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. C.

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, C. E.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, P.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

K. Poulton, K. L. Knudsen, J. J. Corcoran, K. C. Wang, R. B. Nubling, R. L. Pierson, M. C. F. Chang, P. M. Asbeck, R. T. Huang, “A 6-b, 4GS/s GaAs HBT ADC,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 30, 1109–1118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. L. Shoop, J. W. Goodman, “High resolution optical A/D conversion using oversampling and interpolative coding,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 613–617.

P. Xiao, K. Jenkins, M. Soyuer, H. Ainspan, J. Burghartz, H. Shin, M. Dolan, D. Harame, “A 4b 8GSample/s A/D converter in SiGe bipolar technology,” IEEE in Proceedings of the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC97) (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 124–125.

P.-J. Rigole, M. Shell, S. Nilsson, D. J. Blumenthal, E. Berglind, “Fast wavelength switching in a widely tunable GCSR laser using a pulse pre-distortion technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 231–232.

P.-J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, L. Bäckbom, B. Stålnacke, T. Klinga, E. Berglind, B. Stoltz, D. J. Blumenthal, M. Shell, “Wavelength coverage over 67 nm with a GCSR laser: tuning characteristics and switching speed,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 125–126.

M. W. Farn, “New iterative algorithm for the design of phase-only gratings,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 34–42 (1991).

C. Baringer, J. Jensen, L. Burns, B. Walden, “3-bit, 8GS/s flash ADC,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM 1996), (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 64–67.
[CrossRef]

C. Pala, L. Thylén, “High speed A/D conversion utilizing wavelength modulation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (to be published).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical part of the A/D converter. A monochromatic laser beam is incident on a blazed reflection grating. The diffracted beam falls on one of the 2 n diffractive array elements, each fanning out the beam into a unique spot pattern. The spots fall on the detectors, which read out a bit pattern in parallel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of designed spot pattern (6 bits) drawn to scale. The two 6-spot patterns contain the same information, but the bright spots in one pattern appear as dark spots in the complementary pattern. The central spot is the remaining unwanted zero-order spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two examples of manufactured diffractive array elements measured with an atomic force microscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Four consecutive spot patterns captured on the CCD camera. The wavelengths are given in the figure. The central spot is the remnant unwanted zero diffraction order. The readout bit pattern is indicated for each picture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Masked CCD picture of spot pattern at wavelength 1507.8 nm (top picture in Fig. 4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram plot of the margin in reading the bit code of the CCD pictures obtained in the experiment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental data showing margin including sign as the illuminating beam moves in steps of w/4 between two neighboring array elements. The 6-spot pattern at 1509.7 nm is intended to have three bright spots; at 1510.7 nm it should have two bright spots. Margin equal to zero is the decision level.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histogram plots of the margin in reading the bit code of the spot pattern obtained through simulation. The illuminating beam was in all cases Gaussian but with different 1/e 2 diameter and degree of displacement from the center. In cases (a), (b), (c), and (d) the diameter was w, w, 1.7w, and 1.7w, respectively, and the decentration was 0, 0.3w, 0, and 0.3w, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) CCD camera picture of the intensity distribution in the detector plane when one array element (35) was illuminated and (b) an intensity distribution from a simulation of illumination of the same element. In the simulation the element was illuminated by a Gaussian beam decentered 0.2w and with a diameter equal to 1.7w. The similarity of the pictures indicates that the decentration in (a) was ∼0.2w.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d=4λ0RπD,
sin α-sin β=m λ0Λ,
δβ=δλΛ cos β.
δλ=4λ0Λ cos βπD.
D=4λ0Λ2n cos βπΔλ.
nmax=λ0/amin2λ0/πd2=πd2amin2.
nnmax10d2amin2.
R=πDaminn2λ0,
R=2aminΛ2n cos βnΔλ.
B/f<δλ0/λ=Δλ/λ0×2n,

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