Abstract

A critical factor that affects the appearance of printed paper surfaces is gloss uniformity, which is usually assessed visually. To relate gloss uniformity to nonvisual quantities, we first visually identified areas of either high or low gloss on the same sample for two different types of paper. We then measured the roughness and the reflectance of these areas. Microroughness was measured with an atomic-force microscope, and roughness was measured over a larger area with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The local reflectance of the high-gloss and the low-gloss areas was obtained from images taken with a gloss-imaging instrument and compared with the roughness of each area. This correlation is nonlinear, and roughness is insufficient to predict the local reflectance. Light-scattering measurements were made in the specular direction to map the gloss uniformity over larger areas than was possible with the gloss-imaging instrument. These maps were used to show the possibility of using both the spatial frequency and the fan filters, which together form a set of cortex filters, to analyze the variation of the gloss about the mean value and its spatial distribution on the surface in terms of spatial frequency and azimuthal orientation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.
  2. P. Oittinen, “Surface reflection of coated papers and prints,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Advances in Printing Science and Technology Conference (Pentech, London, 1980), pp. 344–372.
  3. D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).
  4. American Society for Testing and Materials standard E 284–98a, “Standard terminology of appearance” (ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1998).
  5. W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lindstrand, “A conceptual approach to describe gloss variation in printing paper,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1996).
  7. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Optical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7.
  8. E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. SPIE680, 102–111 (1986).
  9. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.
  10. Ref. 9, pp. 35–36.
  11. M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.
  12. M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).
  13. T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
  14. Dimension 3000 scanning-probe microscope (Digital Instruments, Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117).
  15. Model TCS confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica Lasertechnik GmbH, Im Neuenheimer Feld 518, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany).
  16. M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.
  17. M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.
  18. Ref. 9, pp. 58–62.
  19. M. Andersson, “Application of image processing techniques to paper analysis,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1998).

1997 (1)

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

1990 (1)

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

1939 (1)

W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

M. Andersson, “Application of image processing techniques to paper analysis,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1998).

Barkas, W. W.

W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Barratte, C.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

Béland, M.-C.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.

Bjork, D. R.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. SPIE680, 102–111 (1986).

Donigian, D. W.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

Ishley, J. N.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

Johansson, P.-Å.

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

Lindberg, S.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

Lindstrand, M.

M. Lindstrand, “A conceptual approach to describe gloss variation in printing paper,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1996).

MacGregor, M.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

MacGregor, M. A.

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

Mangin, P. J.

M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Optical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7.

Oittinen, P.

P. Oittinen, “Surface reflection of coated papers and prints,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Advances in Printing Science and Technology Conference (Pentech, London, 1980), pp. 344–372.

Schiff, T. D.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Southwood, M. E.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Stover, J. C.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Swimley, B. D.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Wilson, D. J.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Wise, K. J.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Tappi J. (2)

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

Other (16)

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).

Dimension 3000 scanning-probe microscope (Digital Instruments, Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117).

Model TCS confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica Lasertechnik GmbH, Im Neuenheimer Feld 518, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany).

M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

Ref. 9, pp. 58–62.

M. Andersson, “Application of image processing techniques to paper analysis,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1998).

American Society for Testing and Materials standard E 284–98a, “Standard terminology of appearance” (ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1998).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

P. Oittinen, “Surface reflection of coated papers and prints,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Advances in Printing Science and Technology Conference (Pentech, London, 1980), pp. 344–372.

M. Lindstrand, “A conceptual approach to describe gloss variation in printing paper,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1996).

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Optical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7.

E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. SPIE680, 102–111 (1986).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.

Ref. 9, pp. 35–36.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

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