Abstract

A critical factor that affects the appearance of printed paper surfaces is gloss uniformity, which is usually assessed visually. To relate gloss uniformity to nonvisual quantities, we first visually identified areas of either high or low gloss on the same sample for two different types of paper. We then measured the roughness and the reflectance of these areas. Microroughness was measured with an atomic-force microscope, and roughness was measured over a larger area with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The local reflectance of the high-gloss and the low-gloss areas was obtained from images taken with a gloss-imaging instrument and compared with the roughness of each area. This correlation is nonlinear, and roughness is insufficient to predict the local reflectance. Light-scattering measurements were made in the specular direction to map the gloss uniformity over larger areas than was possible with the gloss-imaging instrument. These maps were used to show the possibility of using both the spatial frequency and the fan filters, which together form a set of cortex filters, to analyze the variation of the gloss about the mean value and its spatial distribution on the surface in terms of spatial frequency and azimuthal orientation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.
  2. P. Oittinen, “Surface reflection of coated papers and prints,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Advances in Printing Science and Technology Conference (Pentech, London, 1980), pp. 344–372.
  3. D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).
  4. American Society for Testing and Materials standard E 284–98a, “Standard terminology of appearance” (ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1998).
  5. W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lindstrand, “A conceptual approach to describe gloss variation in printing paper,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1996).
  7. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Optical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7.
  8. E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. SPIE680, 102–111 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.
  10. Ref. 9, pp. 35–36.
  11. M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.
  12. M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).
  13. T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Dimension 3000 scanning-probe microscope (Digital Instruments, Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117).
  15. Model TCS confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica Lasertechnik GmbH, Im Neuenheimer Feld 518, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany).
  16. M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.
  17. M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.
  18. Ref. 9, pp. 58–62.
  19. M. Andersson, “Application of image processing techniques to paper analysis,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1998).

1997

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

1990

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

1939

W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

M. Andersson, “Application of image processing techniques to paper analysis,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1998).

Barkas, W. W.

W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Barratte, C.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

Béland, M.-C.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.

Bjork, D. R.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. SPIE680, 102–111 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Donigian, D. W.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

Ishley, J. N.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

Johansson, P.-Å.

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

Lindberg, S.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

Lindstrand, M.

M. Lindstrand, “A conceptual approach to describe gloss variation in printing paper,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1996).

MacGregor, M.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

MacGregor, M. A.

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

Mangin, P. J.

M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Optical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7.

Oittinen, P.

P. Oittinen, “Surface reflection of coated papers and prints,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Advances in Printing Science and Technology Conference (Pentech, London, 1980), pp. 344–372.

Schiff, T. D.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Southwood, M. E.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swimley, B. D.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. J.

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wise, K. J.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

Proc. Phys. Soc.

W. W. Barkas, “Analysis of light scattered from a surface of low gloss into its specular and diffuse components,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 51, 274–295 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Tappi J.

D. W. Donigian, J. N. Ishley, K. J. Wise, “Coating pore structure and offset printed gloss,” Tappi J. 80(5), 163–172 (1997).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, “Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper: part I, the gloss imaging equipment and analytical techniques,” Tappi J. 73(12), 161–168 (1990).

Other

T. D. Schiff, J. C. Stover, D. J. Wilson, B. D. Swimley, M. E. Southwood, D. R. Bjork, “Design review of a unique out-of-plane polarimetric scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems II, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1753, 262–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dimension 3000 scanning-probe microscope (Digital Instruments, Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117).

Model TCS confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica Lasertechnik GmbH, Im Neuenheimer Feld 518, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany).

M.-C. Béland, P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners, S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.

M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte, M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.

Ref. 9, pp. 58–62.

M. Andersson, “Application of image processing techniques to paper analysis,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1998).

American Society for Testing and Materials standard E 284–98a, “Standard terminology of appearance” (ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1998).

M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.

P. Oittinen, “Surface reflection of coated papers and prints,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Advances in Printing Science and Technology Conference (Pentech, London, 1980), pp. 344–372.

M. Lindstrand, “A conceptual approach to describe gloss variation in printing paper,” M.S. thesis (Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1996).

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Optical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7.

E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. SPIE680, 102–111 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 55–56.

Ref. 9, pp. 35–36.

M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

STFI gloss-variation measurement instrument. The illumination angle is 20°, and the CCD camera (left-hand side) is also placed at 20° in the specular direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

STFI gloss-variation image of a high-gloss area (circled) of sample 24 (the worst) showing the marks (indicated by the arrow) made 1 mm below the area of interest.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the CLSM, adapted from Leica.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSD functions plotted versus the spatial frequency for samples 11 (the best) and 24 (the worst) as determined from CLSM topographical images that cover 1 mm × 1 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CLSM topographical images of (left-hand side) the high-gloss and (right-hand side) the low-gloss areas for sample 11 (top images) and sample 24 (bottom images). The scale bar is 100 µm, and the image size is 500 µm × 500 µm. All images are shown with the same gray scale (-8 to 10 µm) and can be compared visually.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Topographical images taken of one low-gloss area of sample 24. The CLSM image (left-hand side) and the AFM image (right-hand side) are difficult to register because of the differences in scale and resolution. For comparison a square of 25 µm × 25 µm is shown below the left-hand scale bar. The vertical height gray scales are given in units of micrometers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean gray level of areas that were identified as being of either high or low gloss plotted versus the rms roughness R q of the CLSM images over a 500 µm × 500 µm area. Sample 11 (the best): ⋄ high-gloss areas, ♦ low-gloss areas. Sample 24 (the worst): □ high-gloss areas, ■ low-gloss areas.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maps of the 20° BSDF measured in the specular direction (20°) over a 25 mm × 25 mm area. Each pixel for the map of sample 24 was multiplied by 4.63 to make its mean level the same as that of sample 11. Both images have the same gray scale.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface-spatial-frequency images that are centered around 0.3, 0.2, and 0.1 mm-1 of the BSDF maps for (top images) sample 11 (the best) and (bottom images) sample 24 (the worst). The three bands can be summed to yield the original BSDF maps as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Azimuthal orientations of the BSDF maps for (top images) sample 11 (the best) and (bottom images) sample 24 (the worst). The fan filters were set at orientations of -90°, -45°, 0°, and 45°, from left to right. When summed these images give the original BSDF maps as shown in Fig. 8.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 AFM, CLSM, and Mean Gray-Level Data of the High- and the Low-Gloss Areas on Samples 24 and 11

Equations (1)

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C=Imax-Imin)/(Imax+Imin.

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