Abstract

We present a significant design improvement over previous visible-light stray-background-reducing baffles suitable for use on a stabilized deep-space platform. In earlier research we showed that when background-light sources are confined to a hemisphere or less, a conventional labyrinth baffle can be replaced by an array of concentric vanes, oriented away from the desired field of view. This configuration delivers substantial savings in size and weight. The present improvement replaces the concentric vanes by a smooth curved surface. This permits simplified fabrication and handling, provides even more weight reduction, and delivers improved performance for a given size. Laboratory measurements confirm stray-light performance with ∼10-14 rejection viewing as close as 3° to a bright-light source.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Buffington, “Very-wide-angle optical systems suitable for spaceborne photometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4284–4293 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Corrals, hubcaps, and crystal balls: some new designs for very-wide-angle visible-light heliospheric imagers,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 77–86 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).
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  12. B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

1999 (1)

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “Visible-light all-sky imagers in deep space,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 31, 959 (1999).

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Acuña, M. H.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Antiochos, S. K.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Ayon, J. A.

J. E. Randolph, J. A. Ayon, K. Leschly, R. N. Miyake, B. T. Tsurutani, “Innovations on the Solar Probe mission,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 13–21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, G.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Buffington, A.

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “Visible-light all-sky imagers in deep space,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 31, 959 (1999).

A. Buffington, “Very-wide-angle optical systems suitable for spaceborne photometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4284–4293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Corrals, hubcaps, and crystal balls: some new designs for very-wide-angle visible-light heliospheric imagers,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 77–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Burlaga, L.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Cook, J. W.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Cummings, A. C.

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davila, J. M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Davis, J. M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Dere, K. P.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Fisher, R.

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galvin, A. B.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Goldstein, B.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Goldstein, B. E.

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harris, H.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Harrison, R.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Harvey, J. W.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Hick, P. P.

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “Visible-light all-sky imagers in deep space,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 31, 959 (1999).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Corrals, hubcaps, and crystal balls: some new designs for very-wide-angle visible-light heliospheric imagers,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 77–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hildner, E.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Howard, R. A.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Ipavich, F. M.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Jackson, B. V.

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “Visible-light all-sky imagers in deep space,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 31, 959 (1999).

A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Corrals, hubcaps, and crystal balls: some new designs for very-wide-angle visible-light heliospheric imagers,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 77–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahler, S. W.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

Karpen, J. T.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Klimchuk, J. A.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Kojima, M.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

Koomen, M.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Korendyke, C. M.

A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6669–6673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Corrals, hubcaps, and crystal balls: some new designs for very-wide-angle visible-light heliospheric imagers,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 77–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Koutchmy, S.

S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

LaBonte, B.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Lamy, P.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Leschly, K.

J. E. Randolph, J. A. Ayon, K. Leschly, R. N. Miyake, B. T. Tsurutani, “Innovations on the Solar Probe mission,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 13–21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liewer, P.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Liewer, P. C.

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linker, J. A.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Mewaldt, R. A.

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michels, D. J.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Mikic, Z.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Miyake, R. N.

J. E. Randolph, J. A. Ayon, K. Leschly, R. N. Miyake, B. T. Tsurutani, “Innovations on the Solar Probe mission,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 13–21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moses, J. D.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Moulton, N. E.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Neugebauer, M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pizzo, V. J.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Prinz, D. K.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Radick, R. R.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

Randolph, J. E.

J. E. Randolph, J. A. Ayon, K. Leschly, R. N. Miyake, B. T. Tsurutani, “Innovations on the Solar Probe mission,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 13–21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbauer, H.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Schwenn, R.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Sheeley, N. R.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Simnett, G.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Slavin, J. A.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, Sunspot, N. Mex., 88349 (personal communication, 1998).

Socker, D. G.

D. G. Socker, “Stereographic image potential of a STEREO mission,” in Mission to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 44–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Tsurutani, B. T.

J. E. Randolph, J. A. Ayon, K. Leschly, R. N. Miyake, B. T. Tsurutani, “Innovations on the Solar Probe mission,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 13–21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waltham, N. R.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

Wu, S. T.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, “Visible-light all-sky imagers in deep space,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 31, 959 (1999).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, S. W. Kahler, M. Kojima, R. R. Radick, An All-Sky Heliospheric Imager System for the STEREO Spacecraft, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1999).

A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, B. V. Jackson, C. M. Korendyke, “Corrals, hubcaps, and crystal balls: some new designs for very-wide-angle visible-light heliospheric imagers,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 77–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, STEREO—A Mission to Observe the Sun and the Heliosphere in Three Dimensions, in (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1995).

D. G. Socker, “Stereographic image potential of a STEREO mission,” in Mission to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 44–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Randolph, J. A. Ayon, K. Leschly, R. N. Miyake, B. T. Tsurutani, “Innovations on the Solar Probe mission,” in Missions to the Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 13–21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Goldstein, A. Buffington, A. C. Cummings, R. Fisher, B. V. Jackson, P. C. Liewer, R. A. Mewaldt, M. Neugebauer, “Solar Polar Sail mission: report of a study to put a scientific spacecraft in a circular polar orbit about the sun,” in Missions to Sun II, C. M. Korendyke, ed., Proc. SPIE3442, 65–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. P. Hick, R. Harrison, N. R. Waltham, F. M. Ipavich, A. B. Galvin, J. A. Slavin, M. H. Acuña, R. A. Howard, M. Koomen, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, PERSPECTIVE—A Deep-Space Mission to Investigate the Sun-Earth Connection, in (Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1997).

R. N. Smartt, National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, Sunspot, N. Mex., 88349 (personal communication, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration showing the earlier corral design technique.1 (a) Cross section through a five-vane corral showing background light (arrows at left) incident at angle Θ d relative to a horizontal line (dashed) marking the edge of the optics (whose aperture is located off the figure to the right) field of view. In turn, the background light diffracts off the sequence of vanes as shown schematically by a fan of rays on each. The main path for light reaching the optics aperture is shown by the double-thickness top ray in each fan. (b) Typical performance expected for N = 1, 5 and δ = 4 cm, for an optics aperture placed 1 m behind the array of vanes. Note that the five-vane case approximates an exponential, linear on this semilog plot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plan view of the laboratory measurement setup. To vary Θ, the laser is shifted and rotated so its beam remains tangent to the cylindrical surface. The laser, its light-beam path, and a line connecting the beam’s contact point to the cylindrical surface’s center of curvature (cross) are shown at Θ = 0° (solid lines) and at Θ = 3° (dashed lines). The CCD camera is focused where the Θ = 0° beam is tangent to the surface. This limits the diffracted or scattered light to just a few pixels on the CCD, thus permitting this measurement’s extraordinarily wide dynamic range. For nonzero Θ, the unscattered light beam is absorbed within the labyrinthine light baffle. In the Θ = 3° case illustrated, this unscattered beam stops as shown in the outermost baffle stage. Negligible amounts of this light scatter further within the baffle and then within the camera lens, thus affecting the measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity of light passing through the 1 mm × 1 cm aperture at the CCD camera, as a function of angular deviation Θ around the cylinder. Measurements are normalized on this figure with Θ = 0 placed at approximately 0.2 the intensity of the direct laser beam, correct for the knife edge and appropriate also for the smooth-surface measurements. The thick solid and dashed lines show exponential slopes having Θ0 = 0.21° and 0.28°, respectively, good fits to the R = 1 and 0.5-m data.

Equations (1)

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II0  exp-Θ/Θ0.

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