Abstract

Double-exposure holography and double-exposure shearography are often used together with the carrier fringe technique, which requires additional shifting of the light source in a prescribed manner between exposures. In the holographic carrier fringe technique, difficulty in prescribing a suitable movement of the light source may be alleviated through visualization of the moiré fringes that are reconstructed by slight displacement of two overlaid families of ellipsoids in a holodiagram. Because shearography is the first differential of holography, it is often impractical to perform two successive optical differentiations on the ellipsoids to visualize the shearographic carrier fringes. A simple method of discerning holographic and shearographic carrier fringes is described. The method is based on the hyperboloids in a holodiagram that represent Young’s (interference) fringes produced by the interference of two point sources. The hyperboloids are analogous to holographic carrier fringes, whereas the moiré patterns reconstructed from two overlaid hyperboloids are analogous to shearographic carrier fringes. Use of this method for explaining the formation of deformation fringes in plate bending, as well as the effect of light-source movement on the deformation fringes, is also illustrated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Archbold, A. Ennos, “Displacement measurement from double-exposure laser photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253–271 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Y. Hung, C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface-strains,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1046–1050 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Sciammarella, “Holographic moire, an optical tool for the determination of displacements, strains, contours, and slopes of surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 21, 447–457 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Yonemura, “Holographic contour generation by spatial frequency modulation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3652–3658 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Kreitlow, T. Kreis, W. Jüptner, “Holographic interferometry with reference beams modulated by the object motion,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4256–4262 (1987).
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  9. D. R. Matthys, T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, “Automated analysis of holointerferograms for the determination of surface displacement,” Exp. Mech. 28, 86–91 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “Real-time holographic phase organization technique to obtain customized contouring of diffuse surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1603–1610 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).
  12. R. K. Erf, Speckle Metrology (Academic, New York, 1978).
  13. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).
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  21. H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. C. Soh, H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, Y. Y. Hung, “The use of holographic phase shifting in assessing unbonds in GRP plates,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 116, 545–549 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Quan, H. M. Shang, C. J. Tay, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “A new approach to surface deformation measurement from phase-stepped holographic fringes,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1271–1279 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. M. Shang, L. M. Tham, F. S. Chau, “Shearographic and holographic assessment of defective laminates with bond-lines of different elasticities,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 117, 322–329 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Quan, H. M. Shang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “Application of the holographic carrier fringe and FFT technique for deformation measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 7–13 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. M. Shang, C. C. Soh, F. S. Chau, “The use of carrier fringes in shearography for locating and sizing debonds in GRP plates,” Composites Eng. 11, 157–165 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, D. Choong, “Cross influence of coordinate and slope related fringes during shearographic profiling,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 259–278 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. K. Rastogi, “An electronic pattern speckle shearing interferometer for the measurement of surface slope variations of three-dimensional objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 93–100 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. R. Huang, H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, “Slope measurement by two-wavelength electronic shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 27, 321–333 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Y. Hung, L. Lin, H. M. Shang, “Novel technique for direct determination of bending strains using digital holography,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati (Society of Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1999), pp. 395–398.

2000 (1)

H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, D. Choong, “Cross influence of coordinate and slope related fringes during shearographic profiling,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 259–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, “An electronic pattern speckle shearing interferometer for the measurement of surface slope variations of three-dimensional objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 93–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Huang, H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, “Slope measurement by two-wavelength electronic shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 27, 321–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “Application of the holographic carrier fringe and FFT technique for deformation measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. M. Shang, L. M. Tham, F. S. Chau, “Shearographic and holographic assessment of defective laminates with bond-lines of different elasticities,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 117, 322–329 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, C. J. Tay, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “A new approach to surface deformation measurement from phase-stepped holographic fringes,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1271–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. C. Soh, H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, Y. Y. Hung, “The use of holographic phase shifting in assessing unbonds in GRP plates,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 116, 545–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “Real-time holographic phase organization technique to obtain customized contouring of diffuse surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1603–1610 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, C. C. Soh, F. S. Chau, “The use of carrier fringes in shearography for locating and sizing debonds in GRP plates,” Composites Eng. 11, 157–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. R. Matthys, T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, “Automated analysis of holointerferograms for the determination of surface displacement,” Exp. Mech. 28, 86–91 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

J. Takezaki, Y. Y. Hung, “Direct measurement of flexural strains in plates by shearography,” J. Appl. Mech. 53, 125–129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

C. A. Sciammarella, “Holographic moire, an optical tool for the determination of displacements, strains, contours, and slopes of surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 21, 447–457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Yonemura, “Holographic contour generation by spatial frequency modulation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3652–3658 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

Y. Y. Hung, C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface-strains,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1046–1050 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

E. Archbold, A. Ennos, “Displacement measurement from double-exposure laser photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253–271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

A. E. Ennos, “Measurement of in-plane surface strain by hologram-interferometry,” J. Sci. Instrum. 1, 731–734 (1968).

1966 (1)

Abramson, N.

N. Abramson, “The holodiagram: a practical device for making and evaluating holograms,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1235–1240 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Abramson, The Making and Evaluation of Holograms (Academic, New York, 1981).

N. Abramson, Light in Flight or The Holodiagram: The Columbi Egg of Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).

Archbold, E.

E. Archbold, A. Ennos, “Displacement measurement from double-exposure laser photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253–271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “Application of the holographic carrier fringe and FFT technique for deformation measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, C. J. Tay, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “A new approach to surface deformation measurement from phase-stepped holographic fringes,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1271–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Butusov, M. M.

Y. I. Ostrovsky, M. M. Butusov, G. V. Ostrovskaya, Interferometry by Holography (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Chau, F. S.

H. M. Shang, L. M. Tham, F. S. Chau, “Shearographic and holographic assessment of defective laminates with bond-lines of different elasticities,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 117, 322–329 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Soh, H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, Y. Y. Hung, “The use of holographic phase shifting in assessing unbonds in GRP plates,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 116, 545–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, C. C. Soh, F. S. Chau, “The use of carrier fringes in shearography for locating and sizing debonds in GRP plates,” Composites Eng. 11, 157–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choong, D.

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, D. Choong, “Cross influence of coordinate and slope related fringes during shearographic profiling,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 259–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Dudderar, T. D.

D. R. Matthys, T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, “Automated analysis of holointerferograms for the determination of surface displacement,” Exp. Mech. 28, 86–91 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A.

E. Archbold, A. Ennos, “Displacement measurement from double-exposure laser photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253–271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. E.

A. E. Ennos, “Measurement of in-plane surface strain by hologram-interferometry,” J. Sci. Instrum. 1, 731–734 (1968).

Erf, R. K.

R. K. Erf, Speckle Metrology (Academic, New York, 1978).

Ford, H. D.

J. R. Huang, H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, “Slope measurement by two-wavelength electronic shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 27, 321–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giam, C. L.

S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, J. A.

D. R. Matthys, T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, “Automated analysis of holointerferograms for the determination of surface displacement,” Exp. Mech. 28, 86–91 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hovanesian, J. D.

Huang, J. R.

J. R. Huang, H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, “Slope measurement by two-wavelength electronic shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 27, 321–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. Y.

H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Soh, H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, Y. Y. Hung, “The use of holographic phase shifting in assessing unbonds in GRP plates,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 116, 545–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Takezaki, Y. Y. Hung, “Direct measurement of flexural strains in plates by shearography,” J. Appl. Mech. 53, 125–129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface-strains,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1046–1050 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, J. L. Turner, M. Tafralian, J. D. Hovanesian, C. E. Taylor, “Optical method for measuring contour slopes of an object,” Appl. Opt. 17, 128–131 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Hung, L. Lin, H. M. Shang, “Novel technique for direct determination of bending strains using digital holography,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati (Society of Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1999), pp. 395–398.

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Jüptner, W.

Kreis, T.

Kreitlow, H.

Liang, C. Y.

Y. Y. Hung, C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface-strains,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1046–1050 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

Y. Y. Hung, L. Lin, H. M. Shang, “Novel technique for direct determination of bending strains using digital holography,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati (Society of Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1999), pp. 395–398.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Luo, W. D.

H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matthys, D. R.

D. R. Matthys, T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, “Automated analysis of holointerferograms for the determination of surface displacement,” Exp. Mech. 28, 86–91 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovskaya, G. V.

Y. I. Ostrovsky, M. M. Butusov, G. V. Ostrovskaya, Interferometry by Holography (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovsky, Y. I.

Y. I. Ostrovsky, M. M. Butusov, G. V. Ostrovskaya, Interferometry by Holography (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Pflug, L.

Powell, R. L.

Qin, S.

S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quan, C.

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “Application of the holographic carrier fringe and FFT technique for deformation measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, C. J. Tay, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “A new approach to surface deformation measurement from phase-stepped holographic fringes,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1271–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

P. K. Rastogi, “An electronic pattern speckle shearing interferometer for the measurement of surface slope variations of three-dimensional objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 93–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, L. Pflug, “Real-time holographic phase organization technique to obtain customized contouring of diffuse surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1603–1610 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciammarella, C. A.

C. A. Sciammarella, “Holographic moire, an optical tool for the determination of displacements, strains, contours, and slopes of surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 21, 447–457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shang, H. M.

H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, D. Choong, “Cross influence of coordinate and slope related fringes during shearographic profiling,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 259–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “Application of the holographic carrier fringe and FFT technique for deformation measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, L. M. Tham, F. S. Chau, “Shearographic and holographic assessment of defective laminates with bond-lines of different elasticities,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 117, 322–329 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, C. J. Tay, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “A new approach to surface deformation measurement from phase-stepped holographic fringes,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1271–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Soh, H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, Y. Y. Hung, “The use of holographic phase shifting in assessing unbonds in GRP plates,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 116, 545–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, C. C. Soh, F. S. Chau, “The use of carrier fringes in shearography for locating and sizing debonds in GRP plates,” Composites Eng. 11, 157–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, L. Lin, H. M. Shang, “Novel technique for direct determination of bending strains using digital holography,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati (Society of Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1999), pp. 395–398.

Soh, C. C.

C. C. Soh, H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, Y. Y. Hung, “The use of holographic phase shifting in assessing unbonds in GRP plates,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 116, 545–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, C. C. Soh, F. S. Chau, “The use of carrier fringes in shearography for locating and sizing debonds in GRP plates,” Composites Eng. 11, 157–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stetson, K. A.

Tafralian, M.

Takezaki, J.

J. Takezaki, Y. Y. Hung, “Direct measurement of flexural strains in plates by shearography,” J. Appl. Mech. 53, 125–129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

J. R. Huang, H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, “Slope measurement by two-wavelength electronic shearography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 27, 321–333 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tay, C. J.

C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, D. Choong, “Cross influence of coordinate and slope related fringes during shearographic profiling,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 259–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, H. M. Shang, C. J. Tay, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “A new approach to surface deformation measurement from phase-stepped holographic fringes,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1271–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tay, T. E.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. E.

Tee, C. E.

S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tham, L. M.

H. M. Shang, L. M. Tham, F. S. Chau, “Shearographic and holographic assessment of defective laminates with bond-lines of different elasticities,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 117, 322–329 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toh, S. L.

H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. L.

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Yonemura, M.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Composites Eng. (1)

H. M. Shang, C. C. Soh, F. S. Chau, “The use of carrier fringes in shearography for locating and sizing debonds in GRP plates,” Composites Eng. 11, 157–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech. (1)

D. R. Matthys, T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, “Automated analysis of holointerferograms for the determination of surface displacement,” Exp. Mech. 28, 86–91 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Mech. (1)

J. Takezaki, Y. Y. Hung, “Direct measurement of flexural strains in plates by shearography,” J. Appl. Mech. 53, 125–129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Mater. Technol. (3)

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[CrossRef]

S. Qin, H. M. Shang, C. L. Giam, C. E. Tee, “Holographic evaluation of edge delamination in bars bonded to a rigid support with foam-adhesive,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 118, 330–334 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, L. M. Tham, F. S. Chau, “Shearographic and holographic assessment of defective laminates with bond-lines of different elasticities,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 117, 322–329 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

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H. M. Shang, S. L. Toh, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, T. E. Tay, “Holographic inspection of laminated plates containing two fully-overlapping identical debonds,” J. Nondest. Eval. 10, 7–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shang, F. S. Chau, C. J. Tay, S. L. Toh, “Estimating the depth and width of arbitrarily oriented disbonds in laminates using shearography,” J. Nondest. Eval. 9, 19–26 (1990).
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Opt. Eng. (2)

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H. M. Shang, Y. Y. Hung, W. D. Luo, F. Chen, “Surface profiling using shearography,” Opt. Eng. 139, 23–31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. Quan, H. M. Shang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, “Application of the holographic carrier fringe and FFT technique for deformation measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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C. J. Tay, H. M. Shang, D. Choong, “Cross influence of coordinate and slope related fringes during shearographic profiling,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 259–278 (1997).
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P. K. Rastogi, “An electronic pattern speckle shearing interferometer for the measurement of surface slope variations of three-dimensional objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 93–100 (1997).
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Other (10)

Y. Y. Hung, L. Lin, H. M. Shang, “Novel technique for direct determination of bending strains using digital holography,” in Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati (Society of Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1999), pp. 395–398.

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W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds., Fringe ’97: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, Vol. 3 of Akademie Verlag Series in Optical Metrology (Adademie Verlag, Berlin, 1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical path for the two-point-source method for holography and shearography.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Generation of hyperbolic carrier fringes on a planar surface through shifting of the light source in the direction parallel with the planar surface. The fringe pattern is also identical with Young’s fringe pattern obtained by the interference of two spherical waves emanating from points A and B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the shape and the density of holographic carrier fringes on the location and the orientation of the planar surface. (a) Source movement is parallel with the planar surface, (b) source movement is normal to the planar surface, (c) source movement is neither parallel with nor normal to the planar surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental holographic carrier fringes when source movement is parallel with the planar surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental holographic carrier fringes when source movement is normal to the planar surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental shearographic carrier fringes. (a) Absence of carrier fringes that results because the light-source movement is parallel with the planar surface, (b) presence of nearly parallel carrier fringes that results because the light-source movement is normal to the planar surface, (c) presence of some carrier fringes that results because the light source is shifted in an arbitrary direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical deformation fringe patterns for a square flat plate under central point load. (a) Fringes obtained with double-exposure holography, (b) fringes obtained with double-exposure shearography.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Resulting holographic fringe pattern when the movement of the light source is parallel with the square flat plate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Resulting holographic fringe pattern when the movement of the light source is normal to the square flat plate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Resulting shearographic fringe pattern when the movement of the light source is normal to the square flat plate.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ND=NR-NC.
ϕH=2πλ ΔH=2πλBP-AP,
BP2=x-xa-dx2+y2+Z-D-dz2,  AP2=x-xa2+y2+Z-D2.
ϕS=2πλ ΔS=2πλBQ-BP-AQ-AP,
BQ2=x-xa-dx+δx2+y2+Z-D-dz+δZ2,  AQ2=x-xa+δx2+y2+Z-D+δZ2.
dx2-ΔH2x-xa2-dxdx2+dz2-ΔH2+2Ddz×x-xa-ΔH2y2=-Ddx2+dz2-ΔH2dz+Ddz2-ΔH2-¼dx2+dz2-ΔH22.
dx2-ΔH2x-xa2-dxdx2-ΔH2x-xa-ΔH2y2=D2ΔH2-¼dx2-ΔH22.
x-xa2+y2=dz2-ΔH22+4Ddz2-ΔH2D+dz4ΔH2,
ϕS=2πλBQ-AQ- 2πλBP-AP=ϕQ-ϕP,
ϕQϕP+ϕ/xPδx.
ϕS ϕxPδx=2πλΔxPδx,
ϕS ϕyPδy=2πλΔyPδy,

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