Abstract

Since focal diffractive optics have been introduced, designing them has flourished, particularly as the manufacturing technology has developed to meet the performance requirements. My purpose is to introduce to hybrid diffractive–refractive optical systems not only the design procedure but also the optical and the mechanical aspects of optical tolerancing. A comparison is made with equivalent conventional (purely refractive) systems in the visible wave band (rather than the infrared wave band where there are many published designs) to seek advantages and disadvantages that systems with diffractive optics bring. The results of tolerancing comparisons show that for small-field systems the introduction of diffractive components has a powerful desensitizing effect, whereas for a wide-field anastigmatic system that has been investigated the desensitization effect of the inclusion of diffractive surfaces is less marked. These results come mainly from the fact that an achromatizing diffractive surface has little focal power, whereas an achromatizing refractive component has to have a large focal power.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. P. Wood, “Design and analysis of optical systems incorporating Fresnel lens elements,” M.S. thesis (Imperial College, London, 1987).
  2. A. D. Kathman, S. K. Pitalo, “Binary optics in lens design,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 297–309 (1990).
  3. W. T. Welford, Aberrations of Optical Systems (Hilger, London, 1986), pp. 210–235.
  4. M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected on-axis at two wavelengths,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 24–29 (1990).
  5. M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected at two wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 860–867 (1991).
  6. M. Kato, S. Maeda, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Wavelength independent grating lens system,” Appl. Opt. 28, 682–686 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. I. Weingartner, “Real and achromatic imaging with two planar holographic optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 58, 385–388 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design: A Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 32–33.
  9. K.-H. Lee, Y. Yoon, J. Maxwell, “Creative optomechanical tolerancing in lens systems,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 187–200 (1998).
    [Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected at two wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 860–867 (1991).

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

I. Weingartner, “Real and achromatic imaging with two planar holographic optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 58, 385–388 (1986).
[Crossref]

Farn, M. W.

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected at two wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 860–867 (1991).

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected on-axis at two wavelengths,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 24–29 (1990).

Goodman, J. W.

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected at two wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 860–867 (1991).

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected on-axis at two wavelengths,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 24–29 (1990).

Ikeda, H.

Inagaki, T.

Kathman, A. D.

A. D. Kathman, S. K. Pitalo, “Binary optics in lens design,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 297–309 (1990).

Kato, M.

Lee, K.-H.

K.-H. Lee, Y. Yoon, J. Maxwell, “Creative optomechanical tolerancing in lens systems,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 187–200 (1998).
[Crossref]

Maeda, S.

Maxwell, J.

K.-H. Lee, Y. Yoon, J. Maxwell, “Creative optomechanical tolerancing in lens systems,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 187–200 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pitalo, S. K.

A. D. Kathman, S. K. Pitalo, “Binary optics in lens design,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 297–309 (1990).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design: A Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 32–33.

Weingartner, I.

I. Weingartner, “Real and achromatic imaging with two planar holographic optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 58, 385–388 (1986).
[Crossref]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of Optical Systems (Hilger, London, 1986), pp. 210–235.

Wood, A. P.

A. P. Wood, “Design and analysis of optical systems incorporating Fresnel lens elements,” M.S. thesis (Imperial College, London, 1987).

Yamagishi, F.

Yoon, Y.

K.-H. Lee, Y. Yoon, J. Maxwell, “Creative optomechanical tolerancing in lens systems,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 187–200 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected at two wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 860–867 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Weingartner, “Real and achromatic imaging with two planar holographic optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 58, 385–388 (1986).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design: A Resource Manual (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 32–33.

K.-H. Lee, Y. Yoon, J. Maxwell, “Creative optomechanical tolerancing in lens systems,” in International Optical Design Conference 1998, L. R. Gardner, K. P. Thompson, eds., Proc. SPIE3482, 187–200 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. P. Wood, “Design and analysis of optical systems incorporating Fresnel lens elements,” M.S. thesis (Imperial College, London, 1987).

A. D. Kathman, S. K. Pitalo, “Binary optics in lens design,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 297–309 (1990).

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of Optical Systems (Hilger, London, 1986), pp. 210–235.

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Diffractive doublet corrected on-axis at two wavelengths,” in International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 24–29 (1990).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grating equation [d(n′ sin θ - n sin i) = mλ = OPD]. OPD, optical path difference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical conventional doublet design (f = 100 mm and f/# = 7). (a) System layout, (b) transverse aberration curves. EFL, effection focal length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hybrid system design equivalent to the system in Fig. 2 (f = 100 mm and f/# = 7). (a) System layout, (b) transverse aberration curves. (Note: the scale of the aberrations is 10 times larger than that in Figs. 2 and 5).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Achromatism in diffractive doublet.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hybrid doublet system with an air space (f = 100 mm and f/# = 7). (a) System layout, (b) transverse aberration curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hektor lens system (f = 100 mm and f/# = 4). (a) System layout, (b) transverse aberration curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Complex hybrid system (f = 100 mm and f/# = 4). (a) System layout, (b) transverse aberration curves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vectorial aberrational errors introduced by surface tilt.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Axial coma sensitivity of the conventional doublet of Fig. 2 (maximum sensitivity is -6.36 mm/rad at surface 2).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Axial coma sensitivity of the hybrid system equivalent to the doublet of Fig. 5 (maximum sensitivity is 0.77 mm/rad at surface 1).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Change of wave-front spherical aberration by 1-mm thickness change in turn in the conventional doublet of Fig. 2 (maximum change is 0.503 when the air space is increased by 1 mm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Change of wave-front spherical aberration by 1-mm thickness change in turn in the hybrid system of Fig. 5 (maximum change is 0.109 when the air space is increased by 1 mm).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Field-tilt effect in the Hektor lens.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Field-tilt effect in the hybrid system.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Change of spherical aberration in the Hektor lens by 1-mm thickness change for each surface in turn.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Change of spherical aberration in the hybrid system by 1-mm thickness change for each surface in turn.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Specifications of Figs. 2, 3, and 5

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Table 2 Optical Data of Fig. 2

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Table 3 Optical Data of Fig. 3

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Table 4 Optical Data of Fig. 5

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Table 5 Specifications of Figs. 6 and 7

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Table 6 Optical Data of Fig. 6

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Table 7 Optical Data of Fig. 7

Equations (1)

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V=λconstr/λshort-λlong,  where λ is wavelength.

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