Abstract

A newly developed UV–visible instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric trace gases from balloon platforms is described. Direct solar light at daytime in the near-ultraviolet (320.6–422.6-nm) and the visible (417.6–670.7-nm) spectral ranges can be simultaneously analyzed for the atmospheric column abundances or profiles of O3, NO2, NO3, BrO, OClO, O4, H2O, and possibly other species (HNO2, IO, CH2O). Compared with previously used balloonborne UV–visible spectrometers, the instrument has the superior properties of low mass (42 kg), low power consumption (30 W), decreased spectral drift that is caused by temperature and pressure changes, low detector dark current, and low spectrometer stray light. The three last-named characteristics are achieved by enclosure of the entire spectrometer in a pressurized and thermostated container and by inclusion of separately thermostated photodiode array detectors. The optical setup is simplified to reduce its weight. The spectral stray light is reduced by suppression of the higher-order and zero-order grating reflections by use of light traps and in the UV by addition of a dispersive prism preanalyzer. The major instrumental design characteristics and the instrumental performance as tested in the laboratory and during several stratospheric balloon flights are reported.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  29. L. Rothman, “HITRAN spectroscopic data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 497–507 (1992).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. H. Harder, C. Camy-Peyret, F. Ferlemann, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: atmospheric observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3843–3846 (1998).
    [Crossref]

1998 (2)

F. Ferlemann, C. Camy-Peyret, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: instrument description, spectral and profile retrieval,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3847–3850 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Harder, C. Camy-Peyret, F. Ferlemann, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: atmospheric observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3843–3846 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

K. Kreher, P. V. Johnston, S. W. Wood, B. Nardi, U. Platt, “Ground-based measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric BrO at Arrival Heights, Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 3021–3024 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, N. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J. B. Renard, “Carbon arosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[Crossref]

U. Platt, L. Marquard, T. Wagner, D. Perner, “Corrections for zenith scattered light DOAS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1759–1762 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (5)

J. B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, D. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russel, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,704 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Lary, M. P. Chipperfield, “Heterogeneous atmospheric bromine chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1489–1504 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. W. Sanders, “Improved analysis of atmospheric absorption spectra by including temperature dependence of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 20,945–20,952 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. K. Roscoe, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Interpolation errors in UV–visible spectroscopy for stratospheric sensing: implications for sensitivity, spectral resolution, and spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 35, 427–432 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stutz, U. Platt, “Numerical analysis and estimation of the statistical error of differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements with least-squares methods,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6041–6053 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

D. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Camy-Peyret, “Balloon-borne Fourier transform spectroscopy for measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1143–1152 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, A. R. Ravishankara, “On the role of iodine in ozone depletion,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20,491–20,499 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. P. Pommereau, J. Piquard, “Observation of the vertical distribution of stratospheric OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1231–1234 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4 and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Rothman, “HITRAN spectroscopic data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 497–507 (1992).

1990 (1)

G. D. Greenblatt, J. J. Orlando, J. B. Burkholder, A. R. Ravishankara, “Absorption measurements of oxygen between 330 and 1140 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 18,577–18,582 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large ozone losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction,” Nature (London) 315, 207–210 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. W. Simpson, “Noise in large-aperture self scanned diode array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 730–732 (1979).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. W. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–623 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, Y. L. Yung, “The chemistry of atmospheric bromine,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 215–218 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

M. J. Molina, F. S. Rowland, “Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atom catalyzed destruction of ozone,” Nature (London) 249, 810–814 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. S. Stolarski, R. J. Cicerone, “Stratospheric chlorine: a possible sink for ozone,” Can. J. Chem. 52, 1610–1615 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

H. Johnston, “Reduction of stratospheric ozone catalysts from supersonic transport exhaust,” Science 173, 517–522 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

P. J. Crutzen, “The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 320–325 (1970).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of water vapour,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. G.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of water vapour,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
[Crossref]

Baumgardner, D.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boering, K. A.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bowen, S. W.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brault, J.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenhild, J. Brault, L. Testermann, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm, Atlas no. 1 (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, N. Mex., June1984); available at the following www URL: ftp://ftp.noao.edu/fts/fluxatl .

Brock, C. A.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Burkholder, J. B.

G. D. Greenblatt, J. J. Orlando, J. B. Burkholder, A. R. Ravishankara, “Absorption measurements of oxygen between 330 and 1140 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 18,577–18,582 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burrows, J. P.

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows, “High-resolution spectra of atmospheric molecules by UV–visible Fourier-transform spectroscopy. 1. Absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 250–800 nm range at atmospheric temperatures (223–293 K) and pressures (100–1000 mbars),” submitted to Chem. Phys. Lett.

Camy-Peyret, C.

F. Ferlemann, C. Camy-Peyret, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: instrument description, spectral and profile retrieval,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3847–3850 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Harder, C. Camy-Peyret, F. Ferlemann, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: atmospheric observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3843–3846 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Camy-Peyret, “Balloon-borne Fourier transform spectroscopy for measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 51, 1143–1152 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4 and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chan, K. R.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chipperfield, M. P.

D. Lary, M. P. Chipperfield, “Heterogeneous atmospheric bromine chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1489–1504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cicerone, R. J.

R. S. Stolarski, R. J. Cicerone, “Stratospheric chlorine: a possible sink for ozone,” Can. J. Chem. 52, 1610–1615 (1973).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R. C.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Crutzen, P. J.

P. J. Crutzen, “The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 320–325 (1970).
[Crossref]

Daube, B. C.

R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dessler, A. E.

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R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Pfister, E. W. Gottlieb, H. A. Michelsen, G. K. Yue, M. J. Prather, J. C. Wilson, C. A. Brock, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, E. M. Weinstock, K. K. Kelly, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, K. R. Chan, S. W. Bowen, “The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2551–2554 (1994).
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F. Ferlemann, C. Camy-Peyret, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: instrument description, spectral and profile retrieval,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3847–3850 (1998).
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H. Harder, C. Camy-Peyret, F. Ferlemann, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, T. Hawat, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Stratospheric BrO profiles measured at different latitudes and seasons: atmospheric observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3843–3846 (1998).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Can. J. Chem. (1)

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Geophys. Res. Lett. (8)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the instrument: Two holographic grating spectrometers (denoted UV and Visible) are integrated into a vacuum-sealed stainless-steel container. The light enters the spectrometers through two quartz fiber bundles. The exits of the fiber bundles form an apparent rectangular slit (column of individual fiber exits) and direct the light onto the holographic gratings. Light detection is performed with two photodiode array detectors (see text). The whole spectrometer container is thermostated by a liquid-water–ice-filled vessel, which surrounds it. In addition, a refrigerant is circulated in a cooling circuit to regulate the temperature of the optical components and to cool the warm side of the photodiode Peltier elements. The total weight of the instrument, including 10 L of a water–ice mixture, is approximately 42 kg, and the total size is 450 mm × 450 mm × 550 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the visible spectrometer’s entrance optics (inner diameter, 10 mm). The solar light enters from the right and subsequently passes through two filters [(a) GG385 and (b) BG38] and a diffuser (c). The entrance of the quartz fiber bundle (f/2.2) is mounted 22 mm from the diffuser, which allows the diffuser exit (diameter, 10 mm) to be imaged properly.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the UV spectrometer’s entrance optics. The solar light enters from the right (a) onto a quartz prism (b) and subsequently passes through a quartz lens (c), an aperture slit (e), a lens (f = 57 mm) (f), two quartz diffusers (g) and (h), and an aperture orifice (diameter, 2.3 mm) (h), which is mounted at the proper distance (19 mm) from the entrance of the quartz fiber bundle (i) to match the spectrometer’s f-number (f/3.3). Component (d) is a two-dimensional displacement tool that is necessary for adjustment of the preanalyzer [components (a)–(c)] to the telescope [components (e)–(i)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance of the spectrometer: noise-to-signal ratio (1/S) as a function of the residual structures (1 - σ noise and peak-to-peak noise) detected in a ratioed halogen lamp spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test of the detector’s linear response (the photodiode and the electronics). Shown are the ratios of two sums of photodiode readouts (added signals of 11 photodiodes from the far wing of a Fraunhofer line, denoted as the upper channel cluster, and accordingly 9 added signals from the centers of two calcium Fraunhofer lines at 393 and 396 nm, denoted as the lower channel cluster) for direct Sun observation near local noon as a function of the average saturation level of the upper channel cluster. The error bars are due to the photoelectron shot noise (Subsection 3.B). The thick solid line represents a least-squares regression to all data points of a signal saturation levels of <80%. The resultant slope that represents the linearity of the detector electronics combination is (2.7 ± 3.3) × 10-5. Also shown are (the two dashed–dotted vertical lines) the typical maximum signals at which the instrument is operated during a balloon flight (at a saturation level of ∼72%) and the level where the saturation effects of the photodiode array start to become important (at ∼90% of the total saturation level).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Inferred spectral shifts for the UV instrument as a function of time for flights 1–3 (locations of Léon, Kiruna, and Gap given in text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Inferred peak-to-peak residual structure as a function of prescribed shifts for high-resolution solar spectra convoluted to the instrument’s resolution (for details, see text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ratio of retrieved and prescribed amounts of NO2 as a function of a prescribed spectral shift. For the simulation a peak-to-peak differential absorption of NO2 of 10-4 in the UV (346–360 nm) is assumed. For a maximum wavelength shift [10-2 nm; see Fig. 2(c)] encountered in a balloon flight the error in the retrieved amount of NO2 is ∼3%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Retrieved trace-gas absorptions from spectra recorded during the ascent of the León flight on 23 November 1996: (a) 450–555-nm wavelength portion of two visible spectra taken at altitudes of 30 km (thick curve) and 5 km (thin curve); (b) retrieved ozone absorption (thin curve) compared with the laboratory ozone absorption signature (thick curve); (c) same as (b) but for NO2; (d) same as (b) but for O4; (e) same as (b) but for H2O; (f) residual absorption after all known absorptions are removed from the ratio of the spectra shown in (a).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 9 but for retrieval in the UV (346–360 nm): (a) direct Sun spectra measured at 5.19 km (SZA, 82°) and at 30.74 km (SZA, 88°) over Spain on 23 November 1996, (b) ozone, (c) NO2, (d) O4, (e) BrO, (f) residual absorption structure.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of ozone profiles measured with the DOAS instrument by solar occultation during the balloon ascent with an electrochemical cell (ECC) in situ ozone sonde with measurements performed from Kiruna, Esrange, on 14 February 1997. Because the DOAS instrument probed air masses in the atmospheric line of sight, which is several tens to several hundreds of kilometers long, but the electrochemical cell sonde measures ozone in situ, spatial inhomogeneities in the ozone field are expected to yield different profiles. Nevertheless, the major features of the ozone layer, such as the laminae near 18 km, were detected by both instruments.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Stratospheric Gases That Can Be Detected by Our Instrumenta

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Table 2 Light Throughput of Individual Optical Components and Total Light Throughput (at 360 nm) for the UV Instrument

Equations (4)

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S=Cdiode×U×αe.
Nph=S,
Npr=1/ein×tr2+un×Ct21/2,
Nr=1/ek×T×2Cdiode+Cvc1/2,

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