Abstract

We report on birefringence measurements in double-clad fibers with large cross section, doped with neodymium and ytterbium. The experimental results for rectangular double-clad fibers are compared with those for single-clad circular neodymium-doped fibers, taking into account existing models of stress- and geometry-induced birefringence. We demonstrated that the ellipticity of an outer silica cladding has no effect on birefringence in large-area double-clad fibers. The stress-induced birefringence is shown to depend on the ratio between the diameter of an internal silica support and the linear dimensions of the rectangular outer cladding. The stress-distribution pattern is derived to prove the experimental results.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Chartier, F. Sanchez, G. Stephan, P. Le Boudec, E. Delevaque, R. Lener, P. L. Francois, “Channeled spectrum of a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 355–357 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312–330 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

Andersen, D. R.

Ankiewicz, A.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bielawski, S.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buryak, A. V.

Cao, J. D.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

Cho, N. M.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Delevaque, E.

Derozier, D.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, W.

Francois, P. L.

Gambling, W. A.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. SPIE1373, 42–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, P.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakimi, F.

Jeunhomme, L. B.

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics Principles and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990), pp. 53–80.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Lalibert, B. M.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Boudec, P.

Lederer, M. J.

Lener, R.

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. SPIE1373, 42–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

McCollum, B. C.

Monns, R. A.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pleibel, W.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Hakimi, H. Po, R. Tumminelli, B. C. McCollum, L. Zenteno, N. M. Cho, E. Snitzer, “Glass fiber laser at 1.36 µm for SiO2:Nd,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1060–1061 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, V.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S.

S. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312–330 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R. F.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rockney, B. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Sanchez, F.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Stephan, G.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tricca, R. R.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tumminelli, R.

Williams, Q. L.

Zenteno, L.

Zhang, Y. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312–330 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. SPIE1373, 42–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics Principles and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990), pp. 53–80.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rectangular DC fibers: (a) Neodymium-doped fiber 112 µm × 48 µm fabricated from one preform, (b) large-area 380 µm × 133 µm neodymium-doped fiber, (c) large-area 374 µm × 199 µm ytterbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup, where l 1, l 2, l 3, and l 4, are 5× objectives with N.A. = 0.12; p 1, and p 2 are the polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Birefringence-induced spectrum modulation: (a) ytterbium-doped DC fiber (12-m length), (b) neodymium-doped single-clad circular fiber (13-m length), (c) neodymium-doped DC fiber (11-m length).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stress distribution in the large-area neodymium-doped DC fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fiber Parameters and Measured Birefringence

Equations (4)

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Bclad=12 n3kp11-p12α1-α2ΔT1-ν2,
ε=1-ayax21/2,
Δn=0.2εk0n1-n22,
Δn=λ2ΔλL.

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