Abstract

I describe a practical method for facilitating the construction of a complex optical arrangement that was extremely sensitive to manufacturing defects. I discuss dealing with the actual tolerancing process employed and outline the reverse optimization technique adopted to take the necessary corrective action with regard to the lens to yield the performance specified. The optical design to which the techniques are addressed is that of a high-performance color-corrected scanner lens, capable of resolving 200 line pairs/mm over a 10-mm2 object.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, K. B. Nahm, “Auto-alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization and end-to-end aberration measurements,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 419–430 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, “Simultaneous determination of misalignment and mirror surface figure error of a three mirror off-axis telescope by end-to-end measurements and reverse optimization: numerical analysis and simulation,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Op-tics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 341–353 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Simultaneous alignment and multiple surface figure testing of optical system components via wavefront aberration measurement and reverse optimization,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 533–539 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization,” Opt. Eng. 30, 307–311 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Powell, “Optical design and analysis program,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3361–3367 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization,” Opt. Eng. 30, 307–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Jeong, H. J.

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, K. B. Nahm, “Auto-alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization and end-to-end aberration measurements,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 419–430 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, “Simultaneous determination of misalignment and mirror surface figure error of a three mirror off-axis telescope by end-to-end measurements and reverse optimization: numerical analysis and simulation,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Op-tics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 341–353 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, G. N.

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, “Simultaneous determination of misalignment and mirror surface figure error of a three mirror off-axis telescope by end-to-end measurements and reverse optimization: numerical analysis and simulation,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Op-tics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 341–353 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, K. B. Nahm, “Auto-alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization and end-to-end aberration measurements,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 419–430 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lundgren, A.

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization,” Opt. Eng. 30, 307–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Simultaneous alignment and multiple surface figure testing of optical system components via wavefront aberration measurement and reverse optimization,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 533–539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nahm, K. B.

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, K. B. Nahm, “Auto-alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization and end-to-end aberration measurements,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 419–430 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

Wolfe, W. L.

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization,” Opt. Eng. 30, 307–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Simultaneous alignment and multiple surface figure testing of optical system components via wavefront aberration measurement and reverse optimization,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 533–539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization,” Opt. Eng. 30, 307–311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, K. B. Nahm, “Auto-alignment of a three-mirror off-axis telescope by reverse optimization and end-to-end aberration measurements,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 419–430 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jeong, G. N. Lawrence, “Simultaneous determination of misalignment and mirror surface figure error of a three mirror off-axis telescope by end-to-end measurements and reverse optimization: numerical analysis and simulation,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Op-tics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 341–353 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Lundgren, W. L. Wolfe, “Simultaneous alignment and multiple surface figure testing of optical system components via wavefront aberration measurement and reverse optimization,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 533–539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a confocal lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aberration plots associated with a confocal lens. Wavelengths are denoted by symbols as follows: □, 546.1 nm; Δ, 488 nm; ∇, 650 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTF plots associated with a confocal lens. Wavelengths are denoted as follows: □, 546.1 nm; Δ, 488 nm; ∇, 650 nm; spatial frequency units are in line pairs per millimeter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Profile, contour, and isometric aberration plots for the axial field point. Contour interval is 0.005λ, peak to valley is 0.048λ, and rms is 0.011λ. (b) Profile, contour, and isometric aberration plots for a field point 5 deg off axis. Contour interval is 0.025λ, peak to valley is 0.252λ, and rms is 0.039λ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ray intersection pattern generated at the pupil for each field point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) MTF curves associated with a typical perturbed system. Wavelengths are denoted as follows: □, 546.1 nm; Δ, 488 nm; ∇, 650 nm; spatial frequency units are in line pairs per millimeter. (b) MTF curves associated with the worst perturbed system. Wavelengths are denoted as follows: □, 546.1 nm; Δ, 488 nm; ∇, 650 nm; spatial frequency units are in line pairs per millimeter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) MTF curves associated with the reoptimized typical perturbed system. Wavelengths are denoted as follows: □, 546.1 nm; Δ, 488 nm; ∇, 650 nm; spatial frequency units are in line pairs per millimeter. (b) MTF curves associated with the reoptimized worst perturbed system. Wavelengths are denoted as follows: □, 546.1 nm; Δ, 488 nm; ∇, 650 nm; spatial frequency units are in line pairs per millimeter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Interferogram associated with configuration 1 of the original system. τ = 0.0, ϕ = 90 deg; peak to valley is 1.89λ, rms is 0.45λ.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Interferogram associated with configuration 2 of the original system. τ = 0.67, ϕ = 90 deg; peak to valley is 2.72λ, rms is 0.54λ.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interferogram associated with configuration 3 of the original system. τ = -0.67, ϕ = 90 deg; peak to valley is 3.37λ, rms is 0.80λ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Interferogram associated with configuration 4 of the original system. τ = 0.67, ϕ = 0 deg; peak to valley is 3.89λ, rms is 0.82λ.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Interferogram associated with configuration 5 of the original system. τ = -0.67, ϕ = 0 deg; peak to valley is 2.75λ, rms is 0.59λ.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Interferogram associated with configuration 1 of the deoptimized system. τ = 0.0, ϕ = 90 deg; contour interval is 0.165λ, peak to valley is 1.656λ, rms is 0.415λ.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Interferogram associated with configuration 2 of the deoptimized system. τ = 0.67, ϕ = 90 deg; contour interval is 0.228λ, peak to valley is 2.283λ, rms is 0.518λ.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Interferogram associated with configuration 3 of the deoptimized system. τ = -0.67, ϕ = 90 deg; contour interval is 0.320λ, peak to valley is 3.203λ, rms is 0.880λ.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Interferogram associated with configuration 4 of the deoptimized system. τ = 0.67, ϕ = 0 deg; contour interval is 0.304λ, peak to valley is 3.040λ, rms is 0.749λ.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Interferogram associated with configuration 5 of the deoptimized system. τ = -0.67, ϕ = 0 deg; contour interval is 0.206λ, peak to valley is 2.068λ, rms is 0.566λ.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Interferogram associated with configuration 1 of the aligned system. τ = 0.0, ϕ = 90 deg; peak to valley is 0.35λ, rms is 0.053λ.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Interferogram associated with configuration 2 of the aligned system. τ = 0.67, ϕ = 90 deg; peak to valley is 0.49λ, rms is 0.11λ.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Interferogram associated with configuration 3 of the aligned system. τ = -0.67, ϕ = 90 deg; peak to valley is 0.56λ, rms is 0.10λ.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Interferogram associated with configuration 4 of the aligned system. τ = 0.67, ϕ = 0 deg; peak to valley is 0.39λ, rms is 0.088λ.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Interferogram associated with configuration 5 of the aligned system. τ = -0.67, ϕ = 0 deg; peak to valley is 0.25λ, rms is 0.046λ.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System Constructional Tolerances

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Table 2 Ray Intersection Pattern at Pupil

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Table 3 Various Levels in the Modeling of the Design to the Actual Built Optical Assembly

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Table 4 Parameter Change Tablea

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