Abstract

We describe a method of measuring the relative optical phase on reflection between amorphous and crystalline regions of the phase-change media of optical data storage. With a red He–Ne laser (wavelength, 632.8 nm) the relative phases on two quadrilayer optical disk stacks were measured and found to be ∼40°. The results are in good agreement with the calculated values based on the known layer thicknesses and refractive indices of the stacks. For calibration purposes the height of a known step on an otherwise flat silicon substrate was measured with the same apparatus. The proposed method is fairly simple to set up, can measure both front-surface and through-substrate types of optical disk, and can be used with any laser that has long coherence length.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Edge detection in phase-change optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2088–2090 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Peng, W. H. Yeh, M. Mansuripur, “Measurements and simulations of differential phase-tracking signals in optical disk data storage,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4425–4432 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Biegen, “Determination of the phase change on reflection from two-beam interference,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1690–1692 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. S. C. Chim, G. S. Kino, “Phase measurements using the Mirau correlation microscope,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2197–2201 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Measurement of phase change of light on reflection,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 436–443 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Effects of phase changes on reflection and their wavelength dependence in optical profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7157–7161 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. XXVI, pp. 349–393.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Bennett, “Precise method for measuring the absolute phase change on reflection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 612–624 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 x 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Effects of phase changes on reflection and their wavelength dependence in optical profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7157–7161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Edge detection in phase-change optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2088–2090 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 x 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Bennett, J. M.

Biegen, J. F.

Chim, S. S. C.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. XXVI, pp. 349–393.
[CrossRef]

Doi, T.

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Effects of phase changes on reflection and their wavelength dependence in optical profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7157–7161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Measurement of phase change of light on reflection,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 436–443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Mansuripur, M.

C. Peng, W. H. Yeh, M. Mansuripur, “Measurements and simulations of differential phase-tracking signals in optical disk data storage,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4425–4432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Edge detection in phase-change optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2088–2090 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 x 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

Tanimura, Y.

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Effects of phase changes on reflection and their wavelength dependence in optical profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7157–7161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Measurement of phase change of light on reflection,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 436–443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Effects of phase changes on reflection and their wavelength dependence in optical profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7157–7161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Measurement of phase change of light on reflection,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 436–443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Edge detection in phase-change optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2088–2090 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 x 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

T. Doi, K. Toyoda, Y. Tanimura, “Measurement of phase change of light on reflection,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 436–443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. XXVI, pp. 349–393.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the interferometer used to measure the phase shift of reflected light from PC media. The light from a red He–Ne laser is split into a test beam and a reference beam. The test beam illuminates the sample through a 0.6-N. A. microscope objective lens. The reference beam is phase shifted by adjustment of the piezoelectric transducer (PZT) stage on which mirrors M4 and M5 are mounted. The two beams are then brought together on the CCD plane of the camera to form an interferogram of the sample’s surface. BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M, mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Conventional coherent image of an amorphous PC sample on which several crystalline stripes (seen here as regions of higher reflectivity) were recorded with a focused laser beam. This image was obtained in the system of Fig. 1 by means of blocking the reference beam. (b) Interferogram obtained in the system of Fig. 1 when we allow for the superposition of the reference plane wave with the conventional image of the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflection and transmission of light at normal incidence from the smooth boundary between two homogeneous media with refractive indices n 0 and n 1. (b) Definition of the phase ϕ of the reflected light with a complex-plane diagram that shows E i and E r , the incident and the reflected electric fields, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured results for a VSLI height standard with a calibrated step height of 460.6 nm. (a) Conventional coherent image of the sample’s surface. (b) Interferogram obtained by superposition of a reference plane wave on the conventional image. (c) Phase image obtained by use of the five-step phase-shifting technique. (d) Plot of phase difference between the two regions of the sample, computed for a pair of horizontal lines on the opposite sides of the step (the y axis shows the relative phase angle in degrees).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Structural parameters for two quadrilayer PC stacks used in the experiments. The substrate is polycarbonate with refractive index n = 1.58. The dielectric layers are ZnS-SiO2 mixtures with a refractive index of 2.1. The reflector layer is Al-Cr with complex refractive index (n, k) = (1.8, 6). The PC film (GeSbTe) has complex indices (4.2, 1.9) in the amorphous state and (4.6, 4.2) in the crystalline state.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured results for PC sample 1. (a) Conventional coherent image of the sample, obtained by blocking of the reference beam. (b) Interferogram in the image plane of the system, showing fringe displacements between the amorphous (lower half) and the crystalline (upper half) regions of the sample. (c) Plot of phase distribution obtained with five-step phase-shifting interferometry. (d) Computed phase difference between the two regions of the sample along a particular pair of horizontal lines (the y axis shows the relative phase angle in degrees).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6, for PC sample 2.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕx, y=tan-12I2-I42I3-I5-I1.
r= ErEi =-n1-n0n1+n0.
r=ErEi =-n1-ik1-n0n1-ik1+n0=-n12+k12-n02+2ik1n0n1+n02+k12.
tan ϕ=2k1n0n02-n12-k12.

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