Abstract

The broadband source of a high-precision optical low-coherence reflectometer is simultaneously employed in conventional reflection and transmission modes to monitor the internal properties of multimode imaging (MMI) devices. Using two carefully chosen examples, we show that this new methodology should permit precise assessment of the performance of MMI devices, including backreflection and internal reflection as well as the imbalance between output waveguides.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.
  2. E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.
  6. U. Wiedmann, P. Gallion, Y. Jaouën, C. Chabran, “Analysis of distributed feedback lasers using optical low coherence reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 864–869 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2975–2979 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Ishii, “Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 251–253 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Ishii, “Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 251–253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, M.

L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P.-A.

L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.

Boisrobert, C. Y.

Chabran, C.

Danielson, B.

de Waard, P.

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Delorme, F.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Gallion, P.

Gilgen, H. H.

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gottesman, Y.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Hodel, W.

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Ishii, “Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 251–253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jaouën, Y.

Kasaya, K.

K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Ishii, “Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 251–253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marceaux, A.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Melchior, H.

L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.

Naganuma, M.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oku, S.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E.

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rao, E. V. K.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Rigny, A.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Salathé, R. P.

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, J.

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sigogne, D.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Smit, M. K.

L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.

Soldano, L.

L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.

Van Roijen, R.

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Stralen, M.

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vergnol, E.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Weber, H. P.

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wiedmann, U.

Yamamoto, M.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikuni, Y.

K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Ishii, “Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 251–253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, N.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, M. Yamamoto, N. Yoshimoto, M. Naganuma, “Quantitative analysis of optical reflection in a multimode interference 3dB coupler using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2266–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Beaud, J. Schütz, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Salathé, “Optical reflectometry with micrometer resolution for the investigation of integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 755–759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Pennings, R. Van Roijen, M. van Stralen, P. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Ishii, “Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 251–253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (2)

L. Soldano, M. Bachmann, P.-A. Besse, M. K. Smit, H. Melchior, “Large optical bandwidth of InGaAsP/InP multi-mode interference 3-dB couplers,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’93) (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 14.10–14.11.

E. V. K. Rao, A. Marceaux, Y. Gottesman, A. Rigny, D. Sigogne, F. Delorme, E. Vergnol, “Low-coherence reflectometry applied to InP-based photonic devices,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’99), in Torino, Italy, 1999), pp. 377–380.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical reflectogram of a low-loss simple waveguide, illustrating multireflections of the probe light in a sequence of round trips.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted spectral response of two jointed waveguides: (a) complex F-P fringe pattern, (b) FFT analysis performed to reveal resonant cavities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex reflectogram of MMI 1, showing internal resonance and backreflection when the probe light is coupled at A (lower inset). The upper inset depicts a portion of the reflectogram recorded when light is coupled at E.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) FFT application of transmission data (b) performed to reveal three different F-P cavities in MMI 1. Note here that the fine fringe pattern is simply a consequence of mathematical treatment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FFT applied to transmission data to reveal three different F-P cavities in MMI 2. (b) Device dimensions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra recorded at the ends of output guides (A and B) with light coupled at E in MMI 1. Note the relative spectral shift and power attenuation between branches A and B. Also shown for comparison is the probe light spectrum with normalized intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectra recorded at the ends of output guides (A and B) with light coupled at E in MMI 2. Note the nearly equal half-widths and power levels in branches A and B. The probe light spectrum is also shown here for comparison.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rτ  -+Sωrωexpiωτdω,
Δλ=λ22ngLC.

Metrics