Abstract

We have analyzed the effects of the fiber cladding radius on the characteristics of long-period fiber gratings. By etching the cladding of a common single-mode fiber, we verified the characteristics experimentally. When by etching we reduce the cladding radius of a common single-mode fiber on which a long-period refractive-index modulation has been imposed, the coupling strength of the core and the cladding modes increases. In addition, the difference in the propagation constants (for a fixed wavelength) between the core mode and the cladding modes increases; hence the resonant transmission dip wavelengths shift to longer wavelengths. The proposed method can be useful in making and detuning long-period fiber grating filters.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–1592 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-mode-coupled gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1830–1832 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.
  8. Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized N × N coupled-mode theory by section-wise discretization,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 3, 55–63 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1284–1292 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized N × N coupled-mode theory by section-wise discretization,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 3, 55–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1284–1292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–1592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Abramov, A. A.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copeland, L.

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.

Costantini, D. M.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T. E.

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–1592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–1592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1284–1292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized N × N coupled-mode theory by section-wise discretization,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 3, 55–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, S.

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.

Lee, B.

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1284–1292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized N × N coupled-mode theory by section-wise discretization,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 3, 55–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P.

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-mode-coupled gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1830–1832 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luvalle, M.

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.

Muller, C. A. P.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-mode-coupled gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1830–1832 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–1592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varelas, D.

Vasiliev, S. A.

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-mode-coupled gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1830–1832 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarka, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Windeler, R. S.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Jeong, B. Lee, “Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1284–1292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–1592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, “Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445–447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, “Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458–1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarka, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber grating band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. Luvalle, P. Lemaire, “Reliability of long-period gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 282–283.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overlap integrals for the fundamental core mode and cladding modes: (a) auto-overlap integral, (b) cross-overlap integral with the core mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental variation of transmission spectra of the long-period fiber grating with cladding radius.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of (a) experimental results and (b) simulation results of LPFG dip variations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength shifts of the long-period grating with decreasing cladding radius from 62.5 to 34.8 µm: (a) experimental results, (b) simulation results. (i) Main dip, (ii) second dip, (iii) third dip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dip depth variations of the long-period grating with decreasing cladding radius: (a) experimental results, (b) simulation results. (i) Main dip, (ii) second dip, (iii) third dip.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation of grating period and cladding modes; solid and dashed curves represent the normal fiber and the etched fiber, respectively. The horizontal line denotes the grating period used in the experiments.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of EDFA gain flattening with a single long-period grating controlled by the etching method: (i) without a grating, (ii) with a grating.

Equations (7)

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·E×Hp*+Ep*×H=-iωEp*·ΔεE,p=1, 2,,
Ep=epr, ϕexp-iβpz,
E=q aqzeqr, ϕexp-iβqz.
dAzdz=-i B+ω4MzAzDzAz,
Apz=apzexp-iβpz,
Bp,q=βpp=q0pq,
Mp,qz= ep*r, ϕ·Δεzeqr, ϕdS,

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