Abstract

Rapid cavity ringdown measurements of multiple broadband absorbing species (methanol and isopropanol) in gas mixtures have been recorded with two multiplexed continuous-wave distributed-feedback diode lasers operating near 1.4 µm. A measurement sensitivity of 2.4 × 10-9 cm-1 for a 4.3-s averaging time was achieved in a 39.5-cm-long static cell with 99.94% reflectivity mirrors. This corresponds to a water-vapor detection limit of less than 2 ppb (parts in 109) for the strong H2O lines near 1.4 µm. The shot-to-shot noise of the decay time constant τ was approximately 0.3–0.7%, and ringdown acquisition rates as great as 900 Hz were achieved.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1998

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. He, M. Hippler, M. Quack, “High-resolution cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy of nitrous-oxide and chloroform using a near-infrared cw diode-laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 289, 527–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Romanini, A. A. Achanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, “Diode-laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538–545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, K. W. Aniolek, N. P. Cernansky, D. J. Rakestraw, “Determination of methyl radical concentrations in a methane air flame by infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6196–6203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Engeln, G. Meijer, “A fourier-transform cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2708–2713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, G. Meijer, “Trace gas-detection with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821–2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of the C6H5+CCl4 reaction in the gas-phase: comparison with liquid-phase data,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 9697–9699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Arroyo, T. P. Birbeck, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Dual diode-laser fiber-optic diagnostic for water-vapor measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1091–1093 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Extensive measurements of H216O line frequencies and strength: 5750 to 7965 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4851–4867 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions studied by the cavity-ring-down method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 4371–4372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption-spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with 6, 7, and 8 stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287–6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption-measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

1982

1980

1944

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Achanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Achanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

Aniolek, K. W.

J. J. Scherer, K. W. Aniolek, N. P. Cernansky, D. J. Rakestraw, “Determination of methyl radical concentrations in a methane air flame by infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6196–6203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

Baer, D. S.

Benard, D. J.

Berden, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birbeck, T. P.

Boogaarts, M. G. H.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, G. Meijer, “Trace gas-detection with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821–2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Cernansky, N. P.

J. J. Scherer, K. W. Aniolek, N. P. Cernansky, D. J. Rakestraw, “Determination of methyl radical concentrations in a methane air flame by infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6196–6203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheskis, S.

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chodorow, M.

Collier, C. P.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cooksy, A. L.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, R. A.

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dadamio, J. R.

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption-measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Derzy, I.

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Meijer, “A fourier-transform cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2708–2713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, J. C.

Gambogi, J.

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation,” in Proceedings of the 50th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, T. A. Miller, ed. (Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), p. 284.

Hanson, R. K.

Harb, C. C.

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. B.

Y. B. He, M. Hippler, M. Quack, “High-resolution cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy of nitrous-oxide and chloroform using a near-infrared cw diode-laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 289, 527–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heath, J.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heberlin, J. M.

Hippler, M.

Y. B. He, M. Hippler, M. Quack, “High-resolution cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy of nitrous-oxide and chloroform using a near-infrared cw diode-laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 289, 527–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holleman, I.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, G. Meijer, “Trace gas-detection with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821–2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hudgens, J. W.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huestis, D. L.

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huie, R. E.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R. T.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, G. Meijer, “Trace gas-detection with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821–2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A.

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, “Diode-laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538–545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knippels, G. M. H.

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knutsen, K.

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, C. H.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, M. A.

Lehmann, K. K.

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption-spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with 6, 7, and 8 stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287–6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation,” in Proceedings of the 50th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, T. A. Miller, ed. (Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), p. 284.

K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity spectroscopy cell using continuous wave excitation for trace species detection,” U.S. patent5,528,040 (18June1996).

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. C.

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of the C6H5+CCl4 reaction in the gas-phase: comparison with liquid-phase data,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 9697–9699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions studied by the cavity-ring-down method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 4371–4372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Looney, J. P.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lozovsky, V. A.

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masser, C. S.

McKay, J. A.

Meijer, G.

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Meijer, “A fourier-transform cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2708–2713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, G. Meijer, “Trace gas-detection with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821–2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption-measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Owano, T. G.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, Informed Diagnostics,1050 Duane Ave, Suite I, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94086 (personal communication, 1998).

Parker, D. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pipino, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quack, M.

Y. B. He, M. Hippler, M. Quack, “High-resolution cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy of nitrous-oxide and chloroform using a near-infrared cw diode-laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 289, 527–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rakestraw, D. J.

J. J. Scherer, K. W. Aniolek, N. P. Cernansky, D. J. Rakestraw, “Determination of methyl radical concentrations in a methane air flame by infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6196–6203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, “Diode-laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538–545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Achanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption-spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with 6, 7, and 8 stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287–6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation,” in Proceedings of the 50th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, T. A. Miller, ed. (Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), p. 284.

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Achanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, K. W. Aniolek, N. P. Cernansky, D. J. Rakestraw, “Determination of methyl radical concentrations in a methane air flame by infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6196–6203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Sheeks, R.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Slanger, T. G.

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. J.

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, “Diode-laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538–545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Achanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, L. F.

Toth, R. A.

Uenten, R. H.

Urevig, D. S.

van den Berg, E.

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Zee, R. D.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voelkel, D.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von Helden, G.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, E. H.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, B.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wodtke, A. M.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of the C6H5+CCl4 reaction in the gas-phase: comparison with liquid-phase data,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 9697–9699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions studied by the cavity-ring-down method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 4371–4372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zalicki, P.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 377–381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Measurement of the methyl radical concentration profile in a hot-filament reactor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 144–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

D. L. Huestis, R. A. Copeland, K. Knutsen, T. G. Slanger, R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, G. Meijer, “Branch intensities and oscillator-strengths for the Hertzberg absorption systems in oxygen,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1109–1121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

P. Zalicki, Y. Ma, R. N. Zare, E. H. Wahl, J. R. Dadamio, T. G. Owano, C. H. Kruger, “Methyl radical measurement by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 234, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, L. Lin, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a free-electron laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 293–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, A. M. Wodtke, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1944).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down dye-laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal-clusters: Cu2 and Cu3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 214–218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Optical heterodyne-detection in cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 335–340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. He, M. Hippler, M. Quack, “High-resolution cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy of nitrous-oxide and chloroform using a near-infrared cw diode-laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 289, 527–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity ring-down absorption-spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Achanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, “Diode-laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538–545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris, C. H. Kruger, R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited light-pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions studied by the cavity-ring-down method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 4371–4372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991–3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, K. W. Aniolek, N. P. Cernansky, D. J. Rakestraw, “Determination of methyl radical concentrations in a methane air flame by infrared cavity ring-down laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6196–6203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption-spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with 6, 7, and 8 stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287–6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

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J. Wang (High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305), G. Totschnig, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson are preparing a manuscript to be called “Trace gas detection using simplified CW cavity ringdown spectroscopy.”

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured single-shot build-up and ringdown decay trace recorded in the evacuated cavity. A single-exponential function is fitted to the measured decay trace in (a). A semilog plot of the data is presented in the inset (b). The residual, the difference between data and best fit, is given in (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the measured cavity mode structure (a) with the calculated [Eq. (3)] mode spacing (b) for the cavity used in the current study. For this measurement of the mode structure the cavity was slightly misaligned intentionally to increase the relative strength of the transverse modes and thus facilitate identification of sidemode relative positions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental schematic of the setup used for multiplexed continuous-wave diode-laser cavity ringdown measurements of multiple species: ISO, optical isolator; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; DAQ, data-acquisition board.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured FTIR spectra of methanol and isopropanol vapor [with a 10-cm-long cell filled with solvent-saturated argon (760 Torr) at 20 °C]. The tuning ranges of the DFB diode lasers (Laser 1, 7180–7200 cm-1; Laser 2, 7120–7139 cm-1) used in this study are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Continuous-wave CRD spectra of 27.8 mTorr of pure methanol vapor measured with Laser 1. The shaded area indicates the spectral features (denoted frequency 1) that were used to determine species concentrations in the multiplexed continuous-wave CRD measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Continuous-wave CRD spectra of 0.186 Torr of pure methanol vapor measured with Laser 2. The shaded area indicates the spectral features (denoted frequency 2) that were used in the multiplexed continuous-wave CRD measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Values of the integrated absorption cross sections (integrated gray areas in Figs. 5 and 6) measured by multiplexed continuous-wave CRD at frequencies 1 and 2 versus partial pressure of methanol (bottom panel) and isopropanol (top panel). Linear fits to the data yield the feature strength for each species at the measured wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of simultaneously measured partial pressures of methanol (left panel) and isopropanol (right panel) in nine different gas mixtures using the multiplexed continuous-wave CRD strategy (vertical axis) and the known partial pressures set by the mixing process (horizontal axes).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Continuous-wave CRD measurement of the H2O line near 7192.4159 cm-1 at 1 atm. The minimal detectable absorption coefficient (S/ N = 1) is approximately 2.4 x 10-9 cm-1 for 4.3-s averaging time (2001 points).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Minimal detectable absorption coefficient versus the square root (SQRT) of the data-acquisition bandwidth (equal to data acquisition rate/N, where N represents the number of averaged points).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Continuous-wave CRD measurement of the relatively strong H2O line near 7181.17 cm-1 at 0.37 mTorr recorded in 0.82 s and consisting of 658 ringdown events (800 events/s). The measurement sensitivity corresponds to a H2O detection limit of approximately 1.8 ppb at 1 atm for measurements of this line.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation of measurement rate and noise with PZT and laser dither frequencies. The shot-to-shot noise (στ/τ) of the decay time constant (solid symbols, top panel, refer to the left-hand axis), the ringdown events per second (open symbols, top panel, refer to the right-hand axis), and the NEA coefficient (bottom panel), for a 1-s averaging time, are plotted versus PZT and laser dither frequencies.

Equations (4)

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1/τ=T++αsνlc/l,
αsν=1/τ-1/τ0/c.
f=q+n+m+1cos-11-lrπc2l,
p1=A2-M2/M1A1/I2-M2/M1I1,  pM=A2-I2/I1A1/M2-I2/I1M1.

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