Abstract

A new method to reduce photomultiplier tube detector signal-induced noise (SIN) in a lidar system is successfully demonstrated. A metal ring electrode placed external to the photomultiplier tube photocathode is pulsed during the intense near-field lidar return with a potential between 15 and 500 V, resulting in a significant reduction in SIN. The effect of the metal ring voltage on the decay time constant and the magnitude of a simulated lidar signal is presented. Optimal experimental conditions for the use of this device in lidar receivers, such that the lidar decay time constant is not affected, are determined. Mechanisms for this SIN suppression system are discussed in detail, and data were recorded to show that the voltage on the metal ring functions by altering the photomultiplier electron optics.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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1998 (1)

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Williamson, A. Knuttel, J. R. Knutson, “A simple internally mixed photomultiplier with GHz response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3014–3017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

G. Charpak, “Retardation effects due to the localized application of electric fields on the photocathode of a photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 51, 125–128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. Charpak, “The localization of the position of light impact on the photocathode of a photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 48, 151–153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. E.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachmeier, A. S.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachmeler, A. S.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, A. R.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D. R.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, J. D.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charpak, G.

G. Charpak, “Retardation effects due to the localized application of electric fields on the photocathode of a photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 51, 125–128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. Charpak, “The localization of the position of light impact on the photocathode of a photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 48, 151–153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, M. B.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dombrowski, M.

Fenn, M. A.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, J.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Froidevaux, L.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuelberg, H. E.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S. M.

Grant, W.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, G. L.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M. R.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heikes, B. G.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iikura, Y.

Ismail, S.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutson, J. R.

C. K. Williamson, A. Knuttel, J. R. Knutson, “A simple internally mixed photomultiplier with GHz response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3014–3017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

C. K. Williamson, A. Knuttel, J. R. Knutson, “A simple internally mixed photomultiplier with GHz response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3014–3017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

Langford, A. O.

Lee, H. S.

Liu, S. C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lowewenstein, M.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermid, I. S.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, T. D. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, T. J.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merrill, J. T.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, H.

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Newell, R. E.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nohara, N.

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, C.

Proffitt, M. H.

Rowland, F. S.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S. T.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S. Y.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Schoeberl, M. R.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwemmer, G. K.

Shimzu, H.

Singh, H. B.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. P.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Talbot, R. W.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, E.

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, D. C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tomitani, T.

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, T. D.

Wang, P. H.

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, C. K.

C. K. Williamson, A. Knuttel, J. R. Knutson, “A simple internally mixed photomultiplier with GHz response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3014–3017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

W. B. Grant, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, T. J. McGee, U. P. Singh, M. R. Gross, I. S. McDermid, L. Froidevaux, P. H. Wang, “Correlative stratospheric ozone measurements with the airborne UV DIAL system during TOTE/VOTE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 623–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, M. B. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. S. Bachmeler, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. E. Fuelberg, J. D. Bradshaw, S. Y. Sandholm, D. R. Blake, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic Basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24043–24068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (2)

G. Charpak, “Retardation effects due to the localized application of electric fields on the photocathode of a photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 51, 125–128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. Charpak, “The localization of the position of light impact on the photocathode of a photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 48, 151–153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

H. Murayama, E. Tanaka, N. Nohara, T. Tomitani, M. Yamamoto, “Twin BGO detectors for high resolution positron emission tomography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 221, 633–640 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. K. Williamson, A. Knuttel, J. R. Knutson, “A simple internally mixed photomultiplier with GHz response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3014–3017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, M. R. Schoeberl, O. B. Toon, M. Lowewenstein, J. R. Podolske, “Ozone and aerosol changes during the 1991–1992 airborne Artic Stratospheric expedition,” Science 261, 1155–1158 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) DIAL laser produces a high-intensity light pulse and the PMT is gated on at some later time. (b) Backscattered laser light from the near-field atmosphere or cloud produces an intense light pulse on the PMT, which results in SIN during the PMT gate on time. The SIN occurs at the same time as the lidar return signal and adds a decaying baseline to the lidar return.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup configured to simulate a lidar system. Two 470-nm LED’s were used to produce a saturated signal on the PMT photocathode (LED1) and to simulate a lidar return (LED2). The metal ring was pulsed with a voltage between -500 and +500 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timing diagram for the simulated lidar system shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decrease in SIN observed for positive potentials on the metal ring, whereas negative potentials enhanced the SIN signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-dimensional plot of SIN, the metal ring potential and time during PMT gate on indicates a dramatic reduction in SIN at low voltages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SIN traces recorded during the PMT gate on time at differing potentials on the metal ring indicate that the SIN trace returns to the approximate baseline level at 30 V on the metal ring.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SIN reduction factor plotted versus metal ring potential for a 5-µs LED1 saturating pulse at 10, 5, and 0 µs relative to the time the PMT gate opens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SIN plotted versus pulse width of the voltage pulse width on the metal ring for 34, 50, and 200 V on the metal ring. The width of the LED1 pulse was constant at 5 µs. Region I corresponds to the time frame in which the pulse on the metal ring overlaps the pulse on LED1. Region II corresponds to the time frame when the pulse on the metal ring extends beyond the pulse on LED1. Region III corresponds to the time frame the pulse on the metal ring overlaps the PMT gate on time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of the magnitude of the PMT output from the simulated lidar signal (LED2) versus metal ring potential indicates a decrease in the LED2 magnitude with an increase in the potential on the metal ring. The magnitudes of the simulated lidar signals were recorded at 7- and 21.3-µs delays between the falling edge of the pulse on the metal ring electrode and the start of the simulated lidar signal (LED2).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of the time constant of the PMT output from the simulated lidar signal (LED2) versus potential on the metal ring shows that the time constant of LED2 is not affected by the metal ring at voltages below 50 V. The dotted line indicates the time constant of LED2 (18 µs) with the metal ring at 0 V.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Time constant of the PMT simulated lidar signal (LED2) with and without SIN plotted versus potential on the metal ring. The dotted line indicates the time constant without a SIN LED2 signal. The time constant was calculated at 7- and 21.3-µs delay between the falling edge of the pulse on the metal ring and the start of the simulated lidar signal (LED2). The pulse on the metal ring overlapped the pulse on LED1 exactly.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic of the PMT and metal ring assembly I and II represent mechanisms that describe the function of the metal ring potential on the photoelectrons emitted from the PMT photocathode. Mechanism I retains the photoelectrons on the surface or injects the photoelectrons back into the photocathode. Mechanism II disrupts the electron trajectories of the photoelectrons.

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