Abstract

In large-aperture, ultrahigh-intensity laser systems, such as Vulcan at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, one of the most important factors that determines the ultimate on-target focused intensity is the wave-front quality of the laser pulse. We report on a wave-front analysis carried out on Vulcan to determine the nature and contribution of the aberrations present in the laser pulse that effectively limited the available on-target intensity. We also report on a significant improvement to the wave-front quality that was achieved by static correction of the main aberration, resulting in an increase of focused intensities by a factor of 4.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Karzt, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 160–162 (1999).
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  2. C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).
  3. D. Strickland, G. Morou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Kato, “Development of a large-aperture deformable mirror for wavefront control,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 777–782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 5.
  7. C. B. Edwards, P. Lee, M. Tatarakis, “Single-shot wave front measurement of sub-ps laser pulses,” in Beam Control, Diagnostics, Standards, and Propagation, L. W. Austin, A. Giesen, D. H. Leslie, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE2375, 254–260 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Fringe analysis/wave front: FRIN (Oxford Framestore Applications, Ltd., Wantage, Oxfordshire OX12 9JA, UK).
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), Chap. 9.
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1999 (1)

1998 (1)

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

D. Strickland, G. Morou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barzanti, L. J.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Bliss, E. S.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), Chap. 9.

Britten, J. A.

Brown, C.

Bruns, D. G.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Collier, J.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Dammerell, A.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Danson, C. N.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Edwards, C. B.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

C. B. Edwards, P. Lee, M. Tatarakis, “Single-shot wave front measurement of sub-ps laser pulses,” in Beam Control, Diagnostics, Standards, and Propagation, L. W. Austin, A. Giesen, D. H. Leslie, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE2375, 254–260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, M.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Golick, B.

Grey, A.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henesian, M. A.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Jitsuno, T.

G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Kato, “Development of a large-aperture deformable mirror for wavefront control,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 777–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karzt, M.

Kato, Y.

G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Kato, “Development of a large-aperture deformable mirror for wavefront control,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 777–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Koch, J. A.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

LaFiandra, C.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, J. K.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

C. B. Edwards, P. Lee, M. Tatarakis, “Single-shot wave front measurement of sub-ps laser pulses,” in Beam Control, Diagnostics, Standards, and Propagation, L. W. Austin, A. Giesen, D. H. Leslie, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE2375, 254–260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, V. N.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 5.

Miller, J.

Morou, G.

D. Strickland, G. Morou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Kato, “Development of a large-aperture deformable mirror for wavefront control,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 777–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Norreys, P.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Pennington, D.

Pepler, D. A.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Perry, M. D.

Powell, H. T.

Ross, I. N.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Sacks, R. A.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland, G. Morou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

Taday, P. F.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Tatarakis, M.

C. B. Edwards, P. Lee, M. Tatarakis, “Single-shot wave front measurement of sub-ps laser pulses,” in Beam Control, Diagnostics, Standards, and Propagation, L. W. Austin, A. Giesen, D. H. Leslie, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE2375, 254–260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tietbohl, G.

Toeppen, J. S.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toner, W. T.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Trentelman, M.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Van Atta, L.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vergino, M.

Walsh, F. N.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Winstone, T. B.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Winters, S.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), Chap. 9.

Woods, B. W.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R. W. W.

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Yanovsky, V.

Yoon, G. Y.

G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Kato, “Development of a large-aperture deformable mirror for wavefront control,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 777–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, R. A.

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. N. Danson, J. Collier, L. J. Barzanti, A. Dammerell, C. B. Edwards, M. H. R. Hutchinson, M. H. Key, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, I. N. Ross, P. F. Taday, W. T. Toner, M. Trentelman, F. N. Walsh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, “Well characterized 1019 W cm-2 operation of VULCAN—an ultra-high power Nd:glass laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1653–1669 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Strickland, G. Morou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (6)

G. Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Kato, “Development of a large-aperture deformable mirror for wavefront control,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE3047, 777–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. A. Henesian, J. A. Koch, J. K. Lawson, R. A. Sacks, J. T. Salmon, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. W. Woods, C. LaFiandra, D. G. Bruns, “National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 678–692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 5.

C. B. Edwards, P. Lee, M. Tatarakis, “Single-shot wave front measurement of sub-ps laser pulses,” in Beam Control, Diagnostics, Standards, and Propagation, L. W. Austin, A. Giesen, D. H. Leslie, H. Weichel, eds., Proc. SPIE2375, 254–260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fringe analysis/wave front: FRIN (Oxford Framestore Applications, Ltd., Wantage, Oxfordshire OX12 9JA, UK).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), Chap. 9.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial shear interferometer that was used to determine the wave-front error of the output laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of the wave-front quality of the output of the laser system: (a) interferogram generated by the radial shear interferometer showing good fringe visibility and (b) the corresponding wave front.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the coefficients of the Zernike terms over a 30-min period, their average values and standard deviations, and their values on an ultrahigh power laser shot. The graph shows values on the shot comparable with the alignment beam to within a standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time evolution of the magnitude of astigmatism and (b) orientation of astigmatism following a single laser shot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time evolution of the magnitude and (b) orientation of coma following a laser shot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time evolution of the magnitude and (b) orientation of astigmatism over a 3-h period, with the laser fired once every 20 min.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time evolution of the magnitude of coma over a 3-h period, with the laser fired once every 20 min.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of the deformed mirror mount showing the forces applied to the mirror.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Interferograms of the CPA beam line (a) before and (b) after installation of the static corrector that demonstrates the wave-front improvement.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radial integration of the CPA beam line far field with and without the static corrector that illustrates the focal spot improvement.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Zernike Polynomial Terms and Their Classical Interpretation

Equations (3)

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Wρ, θ=n=0xm=0n2n+1/1+δm01/2Rnmρ×cnm cos mθ+snm sin mθ,
M=cnmknm2+snmknm21/2.
mθ=arctansnmcnm,

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