Abstract

We demonstrate a novel technique for measuring ultralow linear birefringence of supermirrors (high-reflectivity dielectric mirror coatings). The polarimetric cavity ringdown technique is used in conjunction with the differential detection scheme with circular polarization to enhance the measurement sensitivity. The technique could, in principle, provide the convenience and reliability of linear detection signals and a reasonable tolerance to experimental imperfections. Phase retardation and orientation of each cavity mirror can be determined separately without the influence of the other mirror. The minimum detectable phase retardation achieved experimentally with this technique is ∼6 × 10-8 rad.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Gilbert, C. E. Wieman, “Atomic-beam measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 792–803 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. J. Brecha, L. M. Pedrotti, D. Krause, “Magnetic rotation spectroscopy of molecular oxygen with a diode laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1921–1930 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Viciani, P. De Natale, L. Gianfrani, M. Inguscio, “Magnetic-field effects on molecular transitions in the far-infrared region: prospects for more-sensitive spectrometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 301–307 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Le Grand, A. Le Floch, “Measurement of small optical activities by use of helicoidal waves,” Opt. Lett. 17, 360–362 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, “Geometrical dependence of polarization in near-planar ring lasers,” Opt. Commun. 80, 133–137 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Jacob, F. Bretenaker, P. Pourcelot, P. Rio, M. Dumont, A. Doré, “Pulsed measurement of high-reflectivity mirror phase retardances,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3175–3178 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Le Grand, A. Le Floch, “Sensitive dichroism measurements using eigenstate decay times,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1244–1246 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, M. Oger, “Supermirror phase anisotropy measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 671–673 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, R. Lalezari, “Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 17, 363–365 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Y. Lee, H.-W. Lee, J. W. Hahn, “Time domain study on cavity ring-down signals from a Fabry–Pérot cavity under pulsed laser excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Pt. 1, 6287–6297 (1999).

1999 (3)

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, H.-W. Lee, J. W. Hahn, “Time domain study on cavity ring-down signals from a Fabry–Pérot cavity under pulsed laser excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Pt. 1, 6287–6297 (1999).

1997 (4)

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Brecha, L. M. Pedrotti, D. Krause, “Magnetic rotation spectroscopy of molecular oxygen with a diode laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1921–1930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Viciani, P. De Natale, L. Gianfrani, M. Inguscio, “Magnetic-field effects on molecular transitions in the far-infrared region: prospects for more-sensitive spectrometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, M. Oger, “Supermirror phase anisotropy measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 671–673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Grand, A. Le Floch, “Measurement of small optical activities by use of helicoidal waves,” Opt. Lett. 17, 360–362 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, R. Lalezari, “Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 17, 363–365 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

Y. Le Grand, A. Le Floch, “Sensitive dichroism measurements using eigenstate decay times,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1244–1246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, “Geometrical dependence of polarization in near-planar ring lasers,” Opt. Commun. 80, 133–137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. L. Gilbert, C. E. Wieman, “Atomic-beam measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 792–803 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Althouse, W. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berden, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, H. R.

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, “Geometrical dependence of polarization in near-planar ring lasers,” Opt. Commun. 80, 133–137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brecha, R. J.

Bretenaker, F.

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, M. Oger, “Supermirror phase anisotropy measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 671–673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jacob, F. Bretenaker, P. Pourcelot, P. Rio, M. Dumont, A. Doré, “Pulsed measurement of high-reflectivity mirror phase retardances,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3175–3178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carusotto, S.

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, F.

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doré, A.

Drever, R. W. P.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumont, M.

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forston, E. N.

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gianfrani, L.

Gilbert, S. L.

S. L. Gilbert, C. E. Wieman, “Atomic-beam measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 792–803 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gürsel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, J. W.

J. Y. Lee, H.-W. Lee, J. W. Hahn, “Time domain study on cavity ring-down signals from a Fabry–Pérot cavity under pulsed laser excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Pt. 1, 6287–6297 (1999).

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iacopini, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

Jacob, D.

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Krause, D.

Lalezari, R.

Lamoreaux, S. K.

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Floch, A.

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, M. Oger, “Supermirror phase anisotropy measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 671–673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Grand, A. Le Floch, “Measurement of small optical activities by use of helicoidal waves,” Opt. Lett. 17, 360–362 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Grand, A. Le Floch, “Sensitive dichroism measurements using eigenstate decay times,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1244–1246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Le Grand, Y.

Le Naour, R.

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-W.

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, H.-W. Lee, J. W. Hahn, “Time domain study on cavity ring-down signals from a Fabry–Pérot cavity under pulsed laser excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Pt. 1, 6287–6297 (1999).

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, H.-W. Lee, J. W. Hahn, “Time domain study on cavity ring-down signals from a Fabry–Pérot cavity under pulsed laser excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Pt. 1, 6287–6297 (1999).

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, P. K.

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meekhof, D. M.

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Micossi, P.

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Milotti, E.

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oger, M.

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, M. Oger, “Supermirror phase anisotropy measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 671–673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedrotti, L. M.

Placco, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pourcelot, P.

Raab, F. J.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

Rio, P.

Rizzo, C.

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruoso, G.

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scuri, F.

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spero, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stedman, G. E.

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, “Geometrical dependence of polarization in near-planar ring lasers,” Opt. Commun. 80, 133–137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, G.

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. J.

Thorne, K. S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallet, M.

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, M. Oger, “Supermirror phase anisotropy measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 671–673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, E.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, P.

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viciani, S.

Vogt, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, P. V.

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, “Geometrical dependence of polarization in near-planar ring lasers,” Opt. Commun. 80, 133–137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

S. L. Gilbert, C. E. Wieman, “Atomic-beam measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 792–803 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, Y. S.

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zavattini, E.

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, M. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Micossi, F. Della Valle, E. Milotti, E. Zavattini, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, “Measurement of the birefringence properties of the reflecting surface of an interferential mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 95–98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Carusotto, E. Placco, E. Iacopini, G. Stefanini, E. Zavattini, F. Scuri, “The ellipticity introduced by interferential mirrors on a linearly polarized light beam orthogonally reflected,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 231–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, “Small Faraday rotation measurement with a Fabry–Pérot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546–3548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

J. W. Hahn, Y. S. Yoo, J. Y. Lee, J. W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a continuous wave laser: calculation of coupling efficiency and a new spectrometer design,” Applied Optics 38, 1859–1866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization dependent cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Y. Lee, H.-W. Lee, J. W. Hahn, “Time domain study on cavity ring-down signals from a Fabry–Pérot cavity under pulsed laser excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Pt. 1, 6287–6297 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, “The Malus Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 168, 423–443 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, “Geometrical dependence of polarization in near-planar ring lasers,” Opt. Commun. 80, 133–137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. L. Gilbert, C. E. Wieman, “Atomic-beam measurement of parity nonconservation in cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 792–803 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. M. Meekhof, P. Vetter, P. K. Majumder, S. K. Lamoreaux, E. N. Forston, “High-precision measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3442–3445 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle and optical layout for mirror birefringence measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the PD CRD experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical time trace of polarization-dependent ringdown signals: (a) normalized signals in different circular polarizations and (b) corresponding residuals of the exponential fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Birefringence signal ζ measured with a cavity mirror pair. The symbols represent the experimental data and the curves represent the sinusoidal fits.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ±=dc11-R+±,
+--=-dcτ+-τ-τ+τ-.
CN=Mϕ1θ1 · Mϕ2θ2N=R1R2N/21α+iβ-α+iβ1N,
CNR1R2N/21α+iβN-α+iβN1.
ζ=ϕ1 sin 2θ1+ϕ2 sin 2θ2=d2cτ+-τ-τ+τ-,

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