Abstract

Temporal natures for a variance of turbulence-induced log-intensity fluctuations are obtained. The variance of the optical fluctuation is reduced when the optical signals are integrated in a photodetector, and we express the index of reduction (called the time-averaging factor) by using an autocovariance function of the optical fluctuation. The optical fluctuations for a ground-to-satellite path are caused by both atmospheric turbulence and the beam-pointing jitter error of the optical transmitter. The turbulence-induced optical scintillation can be discriminated from the fluctuation that is due to the beam-pointing jitter error. The compared result from the probability density function of the optical signal reveals good agreement. The temporal autocovariance functions of optical scintillation are obtained and used to calculate the time-averaging factor. The analytically expected effects of time averaging are verified by the experimental results. The estimations contribute to the link budget design for the optical tracking channel through atmospheric turbulence.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Fried, “Aperture averaging of scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 169–175 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Stroud, “Statistics of intermediate duration averages of atmospheric scintillation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 543–548 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Toyoshima, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of an onboard laser transmitter by use of a space-to-ground optical link,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1720–1730 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communication systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, Vol. PM53 of SPIE Monographs and Handbooks (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998).
  10. P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retro-reflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Shelton, “Turbulence-induced scintillation on Gaussian-beam waves: theoretical predictions and observations from a laser-illuminated satellite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2172–2181 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, P. T. Yu, “Optical scintillations and fade statistics for a satellite-communication system,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7742–7751 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. D. Barry, G. S. Mecerle, “Beam pointing error as a significant design parameter for satellite-beam, free-space optical communication systems,” Opt. Eng. 24, 1049–1054 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), p. 213.
  15. Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed. Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).
  17. K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

P. Stroud, “Statistics of intermediate duration averages of atmospheric scintillation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 543–548 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communication systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retro-reflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. D. Barry, G. S. Mecerle, “Beam pointing error as a significant design parameter for satellite-beam, free-space optical communication systems,” Opt. Eng. 24, 1049–1054 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Aizono, M.

K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, P. T. Yu, “Optical scintillations and fade statistics for a satellite-communication system,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7742–7751 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, Vol. PM53 of SPIE Monographs and Handbooks (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998).

Araki, K.

M. Toyoshima, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of an onboard laser transmitter by use of a space-to-ground optical link,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1720–1730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arimoto, Y.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. D.

J. D. Barry, G. S. Mecerle, “Beam pointing error as a significant design parameter for satellite-beam, free-space optical communication systems,” Opt. Eng. 24, 1049–1054 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Fukazawa, T.

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jono, T.

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed. Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, S.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kiasaleh, K.

K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communication systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, Y.

K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).

Lightsey, P. A.

P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retro-reflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mecerle, G. S.

J. D. Barry, G. S. Mecerle, “Beam pointing error as a significant design parameter for satellite-beam, free-space optical communication systems,” Opt. Eng. 24, 1049–1054 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed. Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, P. T. Yu, “Optical scintillations and fade statistics for a satellite-communication system,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7742–7751 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, Vol. PM53 of SPIE Monographs and Handbooks (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998).

Shelton, J. D.

Shikatani, M.

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiratama, K.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).

Stroud, P.

P. Stroud, “Statistics of intermediate duration averages of atmospheric scintillation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 543–548 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed. Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), p. 213.

Toyoda, M.

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).

Toyoshima, M.

M. Toyoshima, K. Araki, “Far-field pattern measurement of an onboard laser transmitter by use of a space-to-ground optical link,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1720–1730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, A.

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed. Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (4)

P. Stroud, “Statistics of intermediate duration averages of atmospheric scintillation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 543–548 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kiasaleh, “On the probability density function of signal intensity in free-space optical communication systems impaired by pointing jitter and turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3748–3757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lightsey, “Scintillation in ground-to-space and retro-reflected laser beams,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2535–2543 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Barry, G. S. Mecerle, “Beam pointing error as a significant design parameter for satellite-beam, free-space optical communication systems,” Opt. Eng. 24, 1049–1054 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), p. 213.

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed. Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiratama, Y. Koyama, M. Aizono, K. Nakagawa, M. Toyoda, “LUCE inner optics for OICETS,” paper AIAA-98-1243, presented at the Seventeenth AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 23–27 February 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1998).

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Fukazawa, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, “Measurement of laser-link-scintillation between ETS-VI and a ground optical station,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 287–295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, Y. Arimoto, K. Araki, T. Aruga, “Ground-to-ETS-VI narrow laser beam transmission,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 71–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, Vol. PM53 of SPIE Monographs and Handbooks (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998).

Y. Arimoto, M. Toyoshima, M. Toyoda, T. Takahashi, M. Shikatani, K. Araki, “Preliminary result on laser communication experiment using Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI),” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 151–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 52–59 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized optical signal propagated through a ground-to-satellite path and measured by the onboard APD on 27 January 1996 with a 500-Hz sampling frequency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PDF of the optical signal calculated from Eq. (15) and the experimental results in the presence of both atmospheric turbulence and beam-pointing jitter error.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized variance of log-normal distribution for the same period as in Fig. 1. We made the fits to the log-normal distribution by using the data set extracted from the 0.1-s time span.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fitting errors as a function of time span for the extracted samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PDF of the scintillation index calculated from Eq. (21) and the experimental results shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency of the scintillation index and the mean optical power for the extracted samples.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal autocovariance functions of the fluctuation of optical signals estimated from 19 sets of data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized temporal autocovariance function of the fluctuation of the optical signals: circles, mean values; error bars, the rms value calculated from 19 sets of data; curve, the autocovariance function fitted to the mean values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time-averaging factor as a function of integration time: circles, values estimated from the APD signals; square, the value estimated from the CCD signals; curve, the time-averaging factor calculated from Eqs. (11) and (27) obtained on 27 January 1996.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 1/e 2 Correlation Length of the Temporal Autocovariance Function

Equations (36)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=1T  Wt, TItdt,
Wt, T=1if |t|T/20if |t|>T/2.
S¯=1T  dtWt, TIt=1T  dtWt, TIt=1T TIt=I0,
σS2T=S-S¯2=1T  dtWt, TIt-I0×1T  dtWt, TIt-I0=1T2  dtdtWt, TWt, TCτ,
Cτ=It-I0It-I0,
Bτ=It-I0It-I0It-I02=CτC0.
τ=t-t,  τ=t+t/2.
σS2T=1T2  dτ dτWτ+τ/2, T×Wτ-τ/2, TCτ=1T2  dτKτ, TCτ.
Kτ, T= dτWτ+τ/2, TWτ-τ/2, T=T-|τ|if τT0if τ>T.
σS2T=1T2-TTdτT-|τ|Cτ=2T20TdτT-τCτ.
ATT=σS2TσS20=2T20TdτT-τCτC0=2T20TdτT-τBτ,
ptotalI=01 pIIxpjxdxx,
pII=12πσII exp-lnI/I0+1/2σI222σI2,
pjI=βIβ-1.
ptotalI=12I0 erfclnI/I0+σI2β+1/22σIβ×expσI22 ββ+1II0β-1,
errNΔt=1Nmax/Ni=1Nmax/N1Mk=1Mpi,measkΔI-pi,fitkΔI2,
pi,fitkΔI=12πσI,ikΔI×exp-lnkΔI/I0,i+12 σI,i222σI,i2.
σI2=A+Bα2,
A=8.702μ3k7/6H-h05/6 sec11/6ζ  B=14.508μ1Λ5/6k7/6H-h05/6 sec11/6ζ.
pjαdα=ασj2 exp-α2+φ22σj2I0αφσj2dα,
pjσI2dσI2=12Bσj2×exp-σI2-A+Bφ22Bσj2I0φσI2-ABσj2dσI2.
BkΔt=1NmaxN-1l=1NmaxN-11Nm=1NxNl-N+m-x¯Nl-NxNl-N+m+k-x¯Nl-N+k1Nm=1NxNl-N+m-x¯Nl-N2  k=0, 1, , N-1,
x¯j=1Nn=1N xn+j,
xi=IiΔt, i=1, 2, , Nmax.
Bτ=a1+τ/Δtb-c-a+1,
a=1.053, b=1.247, c=1.038, Δt=0.002 s.
Bτ|1/27=1.9471+τ/0.0020.443-1.121-0.947.
yn, p=m=np-p+1np xm,  n=1, 2, , N,
ATT=σS2TσS20=σS2TσS2ΔtσS2ΔtσS20=σS2TσS2Δt ATΔt=pNmaxn=1Nmax/pyn, p-y¯p21Nmaxn=1Nmaxyn, 1-y¯12 ATΔt=p n=1Nmax/pyn, p-y¯p2n=1Nmaxyn, 1-y¯12 ATΔt,  p=1, 2, , N,
y¯p=pNmaxn=1Nmax/p yn, p.
AT|CCD=σCCD233 msσ20=σCCD233 msσtot22 msσtot22 msσ20=σCCD233 msσtot22 ms AT2 ms=0.190.92×0.93=0.19.
pjαdα=ασj2 exp-α2+φ22σj2I0αφσj2dα,  Iα=exp-2 α2w02,
pjαdα=ασj2 exp-α22σj2dα.
α2=-θ2ln I2,  αdα=-θ24dII.
pjαdα=ασj2 exp-α22σj2dα=1σj2 expθ2 ln I4σj2-θ2dI4I=θ24σj2 Iθ24σj2-1-dI=pjI-dI.
pjI=θ24σj2 Iθ24σj2-1.

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