Abstract

A design approach to optimizing the bandwidth of optical data links while simultaneously decreasing the bit-error rate is proposed. Mathematical analysis indicates that bandwidth gains by factors of 10–60 with power gains of as much as 8.9 dB are possible. To achieve these performance levels requires several innovations. First, conventional forward error-correcting codes cannot be used because of their excessive hardware cost. A reasonably powerful multidimensional parity-based error-control code is proposed and analyzed. These codes offer excellent error detection and moderate error-correction capabilities. Most importantly, they can operate at the fast clock rates that are required. Second, a hybrid automatic-repeat-request protocol is exploited to correct complex error patterns. In thermal-noise-limited systems this unique combination allows the optical clock rate to be increased significantly, thereby resulting in large bandwidth increases. The proposed design approach can be used in optical data links in which propagation delays are moderate and is applicable to fibers that exploit wavelength-division multiplexing or time-division multiplexing, one-dimensional parallel-fiber ribbons, and two-dimensional optical data links that use free space or guided waves. Several design examples are illustrated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1983).
  2. G. Clark, J. Cain, Error Correction Coding for Digital Communications (Plenum, New York, 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. B. Wicker, Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995).
  4. S. Lin, D. J. Costello, Error Control Coding (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983).
  5. M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral reed–solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 17, 525–531 (1997).
  6. M. A. Neifeld, R. K. Kostuk, “Error correction for free-space optical interconnects: space–time resource optimization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 296–307 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).
  8. T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control in an intelligent optical backplane,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.March/April, 339–352 (1999).
  9. D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992).
  10. F. Hallstad, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1996).
  11. H. Imai, ed., Essentials of Error-Control Coding Techniques (Academic, New York, 1990).
  12. S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Hamanaka, “Optical bus interconnection using Selfoc lenses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1222–1224 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).
  17. C. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).
  18. L. Couch, Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Macmillan, New York, 1990).
  19. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1991).
  20. T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

1999

T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control in an intelligent optical backplane,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.March/April, 339–352 (1999).

1998

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

M. A. Neifeld, R. K. Kostuk, “Error correction for free-space optical interconnects: space–time resource optimization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 296–307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral reed–solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 17, 525–531 (1997).

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1269–1281 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1948

C. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).

Araki, S.

Au, A.

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

Bacon, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bertsekas, D.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992).

Blahut, R. E.

R. E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1983).

Cain, J.

G. Clark, J. Cain, Error Correction Coding for Digital Communications (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Chiarulli, D.

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chirovski, M. F.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G.

G. Clark, J. Cain, Error Correction Coding for Digital Communications (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Costello, D. J.

S. Lin, D. J. Costello, Error Control Coding (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983).

Couch, L.

L. Couch, Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Macmillan, New York, 1990).

Cunningham, J. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallager, R.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992).

Glesk, I.

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goosen, K. W.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gravenstreter, G.

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hallstad, F.

F. Hallstad, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1996).

Hamanaka, K.

Hui, S. P.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kajita, M.

Kang, K. I.

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, K.

Kossives, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Krishnamoorthy, A. U.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, K.

Kurihara, K.

Lafreniere-Roula, M.

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

Leibenguth, R. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levitan, S.

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, D. J. Costello, Error Control Coding (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983).

Melhem, R.

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

M. A. Neifeld, R. K. Kostuk, “Error correction for free-space optical interconnects: space–time resource optimization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 296–307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral reed–solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 17, 525–531 (1997).

Obenaus, S. T.

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

Palais, J. C.

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).

Prucnal, P. R.

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, I.

Saint-Laurent, M.

T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

Schenfeld, E.

Shannon, C.

C. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).

Sridharan, S. K.

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral reed–solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 17, 525–531 (1997).

Supmonchai, B.

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

Suzaki, T.

Szymanski, T. H.

T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control in an intelligent optical backplane,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.March/April, 339–352 (1999).

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

Teza, J.

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tseung, B.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, V.

T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control in an intelligent optical backplane,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.March/April, 339–352 (1999).

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

Walker, J. A.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wicker, S. B.

S. B. Wicker, Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995).

Wong, J.

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1991).

Zerrouk, B.

T. H. Szymanski, A. Au, M. Lafreniere-Roula, V. Tyan, B. Supmonchai, J. Wong, B. Zerrouk, S. T. Obenaus, “Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems,” Appl. Opt.264–275 (1998).

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

C. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).

Electron. Lett.

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, R. Melhem, J. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, “Partitioned optical passive star (POPS) topologies multiprocessor interconnection networks with distributed control,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1601–1612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. H. Szymanski, V. Tyan, “Error and flow control in an intelligent optical backplane,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.March/April, 339–352 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. K. Woodward, A. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. F. Chirovski, S. P. Hui, B. Tseung, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clock-sense-amplifier based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun.

M. A. Neifeld, S. K. Sridharan, “Parallel error correction using spectral reed–solomon code,” J. Opt. Commun. 17, 525–531 (1997).

Opt. Lett.

Other

T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “A field programmable gate array with optical I/O,” in Technical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 149–152; T. H. Szymanski, M. Saint-Laurent, V. Tyan, A. Au, B. Supmonchai, “Field-programmable logic devices with optical input–output,” feature issue on optics in computing, Appl. Opt. 39, 721–732 (2000).

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).

L. Couch, Digital and Analog Communication Systems (Macmillan, New York, 1990).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1991).

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992).

F. Hallstad, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1996).

H. Imai, ed., Essentials of Error-Control Coding Techniques (Academic, New York, 1990).

R. E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1983).

G. Clark, J. Cain, Error Correction Coding for Digital Communications (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Wicker, Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995).

S. Lin, D. J. Costello, Error Control Coding (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the proposed optical data-link controller (transceiver).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of the proposed multidimensional parity ECC: (a) 3-D ECC and (b) 5-D ECC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Three-dimensional binary hypercube. (b) A pattern of six bit errors that is indistinguishable from the two bit errors shown in (a) to the receiver.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER plotted versus the SNR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SNR plotted versus the data-link frequency f with NEP = 0.3 nW/Hz1/2 and a 3-dB power loss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PER plotted versus the frequency f before applying ECC for VCSEL’s with parameters of 256 bit packets, NEP = 0.3 nW/Hz1/2, and a 3-dB power loss.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of the ECC on an optical data link with a 2-D radix-16 ECC and ED plus ARQ for VCSEL’s with parameters of a 2-D 16 × 32 ECC, NEP = 0.3 nW/Hz1/2, and a 3-dB power loss: (a) PER plotted versus the frequency f. (b) Packet retransmissions plotted versus the frequency f. (c) Effective data rate plotted versus the frequency f.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of ED plus ARQ on an optical data link with a 3-D radix-8 ECC for VCSEL’s with parameters of a 3-D 8 × 8 × 8 ECC, NEP = 0.3 nW/Hz1/2, and a 3-dB power loss: (a) PER plotted versus the frequency f. (b) Effective data rate plotted versus the frequency f.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of SEC plus ARQ on an optical data link with a 3-D radix-8 ECC for VCSEL’s with parameters of a 3-D 8 × 8 × 8 ECC, NEP = 0.3 nW/Hz1/2, and a 3-dB power loss: (a) PER plotted versus the frequency f. (b) Effective data rate plotted versus the frequency f.

Equations (30)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pr8 undetected errors in packet=x+12y+12z+12pbe81-pbex+1y+1z+1-8 log10Prundetected errorlog10x+12+log10y+12+log10z+12+8 log10pbe+x+1y+1z+1-8log101-pbe.
Prany 8 bit errors=m8pbe81-pbem-8.
Pr8 undetected errors in packet=q+123pbe81-pbeq+13-8,
log10Prundetected error3 log10q+12+8 log10pbe+q+13-8log101-pbelog10Prundetected error=4.67+8 log10 pbe+721 log101-pbe.
Coding Efficiency=8/93=0.7023.
Pr2n undetected errors=i=0n-1di+12pbe2n1-pben-1j = 0dj+1-2n.
Pr2n undetected errors=phc=q+12npbe2n1-pbeq+1n-2n,
log10phcn log10q+12+2nlog10 pbe+q+1n-2nlog101-pbe.
Coding Efficiency=i=0n-1 dii=0n-1di+1.
P=Q2EN01/2,  Qx12π1/2xexp-y/2dy.
BERDD=12-12erf0.354snr1/2,
erfz=2π0zexp-λ2dλ,
SNRP0ηP01-η+NEPf,
SNRP0ηNEPf.
SNR=50 μW0.3×10-9 W/Hz1/2250×106 Hz1/2=50 μW4.74 μW10.
PrE=v=mv1-pbem-vpbev.
PrE=0=1-pbeq+1n.
phc=q+12npbe2n1-pbeq+1n-2n.
PER=pupc+pu.
ppe=phc1-pbeq+1n+phc.
ER=11-Pr+2Pr1-Pr++kPrk-1×1-Pr+=11-Pr,
ER=11-pbeq+1n+q+12npbe2n1-pbeq+1n-2n.
ηSR=1-Prkn.
D=fclock1-Prkn.
D=fclock1-pbeq+1n+q+12npbe2n×1-pbeq+1n-2nqq+1n.
PrEt=e=0tq+1nepbee1-pbeq+1n-e.
ER=1e=0tq+1nepbee1-pbeq+1n-e+e=0t phc-e.
phc-e=q+12n2nepbe2n-e1-pbeq+1n-2n-e.
D=fclocke=0tq+1nepbee1-pbeq+1n-e+e=0t phc-eqq+1n.
PrRk=Pr01-Pr+Pr11-Pr++,Prk-11-Pr=1-Pr1-Prk1-Pr.

Metrics