Abstract

I propose a symmetric geometry for grazing-incidence interferometry of flat surfaces using diffraction gratings for beam splitting and recombination. The geometry employs a reference mirror to correct for relative inversion of the measurement and reference wave fronts. Preliminary testing with a 4-µm equivalent-wavelength system shows a 3σ repeatability of 20 nm for both smooth and rough surfaces, including a variety of precision-engineered metal, ceramic, and glass objects. The system has a comfortable working distance and large field of view, suitable for production testing.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 76, 259–260.
  2. N. Abramson, “The Interferoscope: a new type of interferometer with variable fringe separation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 30, 56–71 (1969).
  3. T. E. Carisson, N. H. Abramson, K. H. Fischer, “Automatic measurement of surface height with the interferoscope,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2938–2942 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhao, D. Li, M. Cao, J. Wang, “Noncontact measuring profile of magnetic disk with optical methods,” in Second International Conference on Optoelectronic Science and Engineering ’94, D.-H. Wang, A. Consortini, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE2321, 235–237 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Briers, “Interferometric flatness testing of nonoptical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 10, 519–524 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Otani, T. Kuwahara, M. Yamamoto, T. Yoshizawa, “Precise measurement of nonoptical surface by oblique incidence interferometer,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawińska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3476, 214–217 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Joenathan, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7307–7311 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Spür, L. Nyarsik, K. Körner, “Imaging characteristics of prism interferometers,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippeny, G. Lupkouvcs, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 702–703 (1993).
  10. K. G. Birch, “Oblique incidence interferometry applied to non-optical surfaces,” J. Phys. E 6, 1045–1048 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hizuka, “Oblique incidence interferometer with fringe scan drive,” U.S. patent5,786,896 (28July1998).
  12. J. Schwider, “Verfahren und Anordnung zur Prüfung beliebiger Mantelflächen rotationssymmetrischer Festkörper mittels synthetischer Hologramme,” German patentWP 106 769 (4January1972).
  13. T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. H. Bruning, “Interferometric measurement of surfaces with diffractive optics at grazing incidence,” U.S. patent5,654,798 (5August1997).
  15. W. Järisch, G. Makosch, “Interferometric surface mapping with variable sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 17, 740–742 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14(3), 257–258 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Schwider, “Spatial coherence in interferometry for optical testing,” , University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (Druckerei Lengenfelder, Erlangen, Germany, 1998), p. 25.
  18. U.S. and foreign patents pending.
  19. K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), p. 107.
  20. S. Kaufman, F. D. Dorman, D. C. Bjorkquist, M. R. Rinn, “Laser optical measuring device and method for stabilizing fringe pattern spacing,” U.S. patent4,948,257 (14August1990).
  21. J. Magner, “Full aperture interferometry for grazing incidence optics,” U.S. patent5,268,742 (7December1993).
  22. A similar geometry employing two gratings in series with a reference mirror has been considered independently at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. T. Dresel, N. Lindlein (personal communication, 20September1999).
  23. K. Eissner, J. Grzanna, J. Schwider, “Anordnung zur interferometrischen Ebenheitsprüfung technischer Oberflächen,” DDR patent261422A1 (25October1988).
  24. J. Schwider, “Measurement of curvature and thickness variations of flat cuboids by grazing incidence interferometry,” , University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (Druckerei Lengenfelder, Erlangen, Germany, 1998), p. 30; W. Järisch, G. Makosch, “Interferometric thickness analyzer and measuring method,” U.S. patent4,653,922 (31March1987).
  25. K. G. Birch, “Application of the “Interferoscope” to spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Optik (Stuttgart) 36(4), 399–409 (1972).

1996

T. E. Carisson, N. H. Abramson, K. H. Fischer, “Automatic measurement of surface height with the interferoscope,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2938–2942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7307–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

1975

P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14(3), 257–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

K. G. Birch, “Oblique incidence interferometry applied to non-optical surfaces,” J. Phys. E 6, 1045–1048 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

K. G. Birch, “Application of the “Interferoscope” to spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Optik (Stuttgart) 36(4), 399–409 (1972).

1971

1969

N. Abramson, “The Interferoscope: a new type of interferometer with variable fringe separation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 30, 56–71 (1969).

Abramson, N.

N. Abramson, “The Interferoscope: a new type of interferometer with variable fringe separation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 30, 56–71 (1969).

Abramson, N. H.

T. E. Carisson, N. H. Abramson, K. H. Fischer, “Automatic measurement of surface height with the interferoscope,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2938–2942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S.

T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. G.

K. G. Birch, “Oblique incidence interferometry applied to non-optical surfaces,” J. Phys. E 6, 1045–1048 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Birch, “Application of the “Interferoscope” to spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Optik (Stuttgart) 36(4), 399–409 (1972).

Bjorkquist, D. C.

S. Kaufman, F. D. Dorman, D. C. Bjorkquist, M. R. Rinn, “Laser optical measuring device and method for stabilizing fringe pattern spacing,” U.S. patent4,948,257 (14August1990).

Briers, J. D.

Bruning, J. H.

J. H. Bruning, “Interferometric measurement of surfaces with diffractive optics at grazing incidence,” U.S. patent5,654,798 (5August1997).

Burow, R.

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, M.

Y. Zhao, D. Li, M. Cao, J. Wang, “Noncontact measuring profile of magnetic disk with optical methods,” in Second International Conference on Optoelectronic Science and Engineering ’94, D.-H. Wang, A. Consortini, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE2321, 235–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carisson, T. E.

T. E. Carisson, N. H. Abramson, K. H. Fischer, “Automatic measurement of surface height with the interferoscope,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2938–2942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorman, F. D.

S. Kaufman, F. D. Dorman, D. C. Bjorkquist, M. R. Rinn, “Laser optical measuring device and method for stabilizing fringe pattern spacing,” U.S. patent4,948,257 (14August1990).

Dresel, T.

T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A similar geometry employing two gratings in series with a reference mirror has been considered independently at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. T. Dresel, N. Lindlein (personal communication, 20September1999).

Eissner, K.

K. Eissner, J. Grzanna, J. Schwider, “Anordnung zur interferometrischen Ebenheitsprüfung technischer Oberflächen,” DDR patent261422A1 (25October1988).

Elssner, K.-E.

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, K. H.

T. E. Carisson, N. H. Abramson, K. H. Fischer, “Automatic measurement of surface height with the interferoscope,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2938–2942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Franze, B.

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7307–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzanna, J.

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Eissner, J. Grzanna, J. Schwider, “Anordnung zur interferometrischen Ebenheitsprüfung technischer Oberflächen,” DDR patent261422A1 (25October1988).

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14(3), 257–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hizuka, M.

M. Hizuka, “Oblique incidence interferometer with fringe scan drive,” U.S. patent5,786,896 (28July1998).

Järisch, W.

Joenathan, C.

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7307–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, S.

S. Kaufman, F. D. Dorman, D. C. Bjorkquist, M. R. Rinn, “Laser optical measuring device and method for stabilizing fringe pattern spacing,” U.S. patent4,948,257 (14August1990).

Körner, K.

G. Spür, L. Nyarsik, K. Körner, “Imaging characteristics of prism interferometers,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippeny, G. Lupkouvcs, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 702–703 (1993).

Kuwahara, T.

Y. Otani, T. Kuwahara, M. Yamamoto, T. Yoshizawa, “Precise measurement of nonoptical surface by oblique incidence interferometer,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawińska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3476, 214–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Y. Zhao, D. Li, M. Cao, J. Wang, “Noncontact measuring profile of magnetic disk with optical methods,” in Second International Conference on Optoelectronic Science and Engineering ’94, D.-H. Wang, A. Consortini, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE2321, 235–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

A similar geometry employing two gratings in series with a reference mirror has been considered independently at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. T. Dresel, N. Lindlein (personal communication, 20September1999).

Magner, J.

J. Magner, “Full aperture interferometry for grazing incidence optics,” U.S. patent5,268,742 (7December1993).

Makosch, G.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 76, 259–260.

Nyarsik, L.

G. Spür, L. Nyarsik, K. Körner, “Imaging characteristics of prism interferometers,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippeny, G. Lupkouvcs, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 702–703 (1993).

Otani, Y.

Y. Otani, T. Kuwahara, M. Yamamoto, T. Yoshizawa, “Precise measurement of nonoptical surface by oblique incidence interferometer,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawińska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3476, 214–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patorski, K.

K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), p. 107.

Rinn, M. R.

S. Kaufman, F. D. Dorman, D. C. Bjorkquist, M. R. Rinn, “Laser optical measuring device and method for stabilizing fringe pattern spacing,” U.S. patent4,948,257 (14August1990).

Schwider, J.

T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schwider, “Spatial coherence in interferometry for optical testing,” , University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (Druckerei Lengenfelder, Erlangen, Germany, 1998), p. 25.

J. Schwider, “Verfahren und Anordnung zur Prüfung beliebiger Mantelflächen rotationssymmetrischer Festkörper mittels synthetischer Hologramme,” German patentWP 106 769 (4January1972).

K. Eissner, J. Grzanna, J. Schwider, “Anordnung zur interferometrischen Ebenheitsprüfung technischer Oberflächen,” DDR patent261422A1 (25October1988).

J. Schwider, “Measurement of curvature and thickness variations of flat cuboids by grazing incidence interferometry,” , University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (Druckerei Lengenfelder, Erlangen, Germany, 1998), p. 30; W. Järisch, G. Makosch, “Interferometric thickness analyzer and measuring method,” U.S. patent4,653,922 (31March1987).

Spolaczyk, R.

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spür, G.

G. Spür, L. Nyarsik, K. Körner, “Imaging characteristics of prism interferometers,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippeny, G. Lupkouvcs, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 702–703 (1993).

Tiziani, H. J.

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7307–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Zhao, D. Li, M. Cao, J. Wang, “Noncontact measuring profile of magnetic disk with optical methods,” in Second International Conference on Optoelectronic Science and Engineering ’94, D.-H. Wang, A. Consortini, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE2321, 235–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wehrhahn, A.

T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. Otani, T. Kuwahara, M. Yamamoto, T. Yoshizawa, “Precise measurement of nonoptical surface by oblique incidence interferometer,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawińska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3476, 214–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, T.

Y. Otani, T. Kuwahara, M. Yamamoto, T. Yoshizawa, “Precise measurement of nonoptical surface by oblique incidence interferometer,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawińska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3476, 214–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, D. Li, M. Cao, J. Wang, “Noncontact measuring profile of magnetic disk with optical methods,” in Second International Conference on Optoelectronic Science and Engineering ’94, D.-H. Wang, A. Consortini, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE2321, 235–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, “Semiconductor wafer and technical flat planeness testing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1117–1121 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, H. J. Tiziani, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle-pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7307–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Phys. E

K. G. Birch, “Oblique incidence interferometry applied to non-optical surfaces,” J. Phys. E 6, 1045–1048 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. Dresel, J. Schwider, A. Wehrhahn, S. Babin, “Grazing incidence interferometry applied to the measurement of cylindrical surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3531–3535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. E. Carisson, N. H. Abramson, K. H. Fischer, “Automatic measurement of surface height with the interferoscope,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2938–2942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14(3), 257–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttgart)

N. Abramson, “The Interferoscope: a new type of interferometer with variable fringe separation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 30, 56–71 (1969).

K. G. Birch, “Application of the “Interferoscope” to spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Optik (Stuttgart) 36(4), 399–409 (1972).

Other

J. H. Bruning, “Interferometric measurement of surfaces with diffractive optics at grazing incidence,” U.S. patent5,654,798 (5August1997).

M. Hizuka, “Oblique incidence interferometer with fringe scan drive,” U.S. patent5,786,896 (28July1998).

J. Schwider, “Verfahren und Anordnung zur Prüfung beliebiger Mantelflächen rotationssymmetrischer Festkörper mittels synthetischer Hologramme,” German patentWP 106 769 (4January1972).

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 76, 259–260.

Y. Zhao, D. Li, M. Cao, J. Wang, “Noncontact measuring profile of magnetic disk with optical methods,” in Second International Conference on Optoelectronic Science and Engineering ’94, D.-H. Wang, A. Consortini, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE2321, 235–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Otani, T. Kuwahara, M. Yamamoto, T. Yoshizawa, “Precise measurement of nonoptical surface by oblique incidence interferometer,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawińska, G. M. Brown, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3476, 214–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Spür, L. Nyarsik, K. Körner, “Imaging characteristics of prism interferometers,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippeny, G. Lupkouvcs, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 702–703 (1993).

J. Schwider, “Spatial coherence in interferometry for optical testing,” , University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (Druckerei Lengenfelder, Erlangen, Germany, 1998), p. 25.

U.S. and foreign patents pending.

K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), p. 107.

S. Kaufman, F. D. Dorman, D. C. Bjorkquist, M. R. Rinn, “Laser optical measuring device and method for stabilizing fringe pattern spacing,” U.S. patent4,948,257 (14August1990).

J. Magner, “Full aperture interferometry for grazing incidence optics,” U.S. patent5,268,742 (7December1993).

A similar geometry employing two gratings in series with a reference mirror has been considered independently at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. T. Dresel, N. Lindlein (personal communication, 20September1999).

K. Eissner, J. Grzanna, J. Schwider, “Anordnung zur interferometrischen Ebenheitsprüfung technischer Oberflächen,” DDR patent261422A1 (25October1988).

J. Schwider, “Measurement of curvature and thickness variations of flat cuboids by grazing incidence interferometry,” , University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (Druckerei Lengenfelder, Erlangen, Germany, 1998), p. 30; W. Järisch, G. Makosch, “Interferometric thickness analyzer and measuring method,” U.S. patent4,653,922 (31March1987).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffractive grazing-incidence interferometer. The symmetry of the design, which employs a reference mirror, solves the wave-front inversion problem characteristic of this type of interferometer. The equivalent wavelength is equal to the spacing of the grating lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed dual-sided flatness tester.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profile of a 60-mm-diameter area of a 15.7-m-radius spherical test plate. The peak-to-valley departure is 29.6 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile of a 30-mm-diameter machined pump component having a peak-to-valley flatness of 3.13 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profile of a 31-mm-diameter ceramic seal having a peak-to-valley flatness of 1.33 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profile of a mechanical hair-cutting blade with a peak-to-valley flatness of 3.49 µm.

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