Abstract

A simple and robust interferometer with a laser diode subject to optical feedback from the interferometer is presented for surface testing of a spherical mirror. The fringe phase can be locked by the optical feedback within less than 0.2π (peak-to-valley value) even when the interferometer is placed on a wooden table. The fringe locking is caused by the change of lasing wavelength that suppresses the net phase change to be much less than 2π. The locked fringe pattern with spatial carriers can be analyzed by a fringe analyzer at a video rate, and the measurement results of the spherical mirror showed the same result as on an optical bench.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1517 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Observation of a fringe locking phenomenon in a self-feedback laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2610–2619 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Nakamura, S. Kuwashima, “Video-rate fringe analyzer based on phase-shifting electronic moiré patterns,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8403–8412 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Observation of a fringe locking phenomenon in a self-feedback laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2610–2619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Theory of fringe locking in a laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L933–L935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Nakamura, S. Kuwashima, “Video-rate fringe analyzer based on phase-shifting electronic moiré patterns,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8403–8412 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics and chaos stabilization of semiconductor laser with optical feedback from an interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 10, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

I. Fischer, O. Hess, W. Elsaber, E. Gobel, “High-dimension chaotic dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2188–2191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

de Groot, P.

Dixon, R.

Elsaber, W.

I. Fischer, O. Hess, W. Elsaber, E. Gobel, “High-dimension chaotic dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2188–2191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, I.

I. Fischer, O. Hess, W. Elsaber, E. Gobel, “High-dimension chaotic dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2188–2191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frejlich, J.

Freschi, A. A.

Gallantin, G.

Gardopee, G.

Gobel, E.

I. Fischer, O. Hess, W. Elsaber, E. Gobel, “High-dimension chaotic dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2188–2191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, O.

I. Fischer, O. Hess, W. Elsaber, E. Gobel, “High-dimension chaotic dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2188–2191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, J.

J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Nakamura, S. Kuwashima, “Video-rate fringe analyzer based on phase-shifting electronic moiré patterns,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8403–8412 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 10, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuchel, M.

M. Kuchel, “The new Zeiss interferometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 655–664 (1990).

Kuwashima, S.

Lee, B. S.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Analysis of fringe locking in a laser diode interferometer under injection current modulation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 336–338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Observation of a fringe locking phenomenon in a self-feedback laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2610–2619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Theory of fringe locking in a laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L933–L935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 10, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics and chaos stabilization of semiconductor laser with optical feedback from an interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, A.

Melozzi, M.

Mnatzakanian, S.

Nakamura, T.

Nara, M.

Ohtsubo, J.

Y. Liu, J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics and chaos stabilization of semiconductor laser with optical feedback from an interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pezzati, L.

Sasaki, O.

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. C.

Suzuki, T.

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Analysis of fringe locking in a laser diode interferometer under injection current modulation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 336–338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Theory of fringe locking in a laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L933–L935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Observation of a fringe locking phenomenon in a self-feedback laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2610–2619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Nakamura, S. Kuwashima, “Video-rate fringe analyzer based on phase-shifting electronic moiré patterns,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8403–8412 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 10, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Liu, J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics and chaos stabilization of semiconductor laser with optical feedback from an interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Observation of a fringe locking phenomenon in a self-feedback laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2610–2619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, “Theory of fringe locking in a laser diode interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L933–L935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 10, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Fischer, O. Hess, W. Elsaber, E. Gobel, “High-dimension chaotic dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2188–2191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Kuchel, “The new Zeiss interferometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 655–664 (1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Laser-diode optical feedback interferometer and (b) fringe patterns taken by a CCD camera when an optical isolator is and is not employed, respectively, in the laser-diode interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fringe phase variations when a mirror of the interferometer was placed on a wooden table in the presence (a) and absence (b) of an optical isolator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependencies of the P-V deviation from (a) the fitted sphere and (b) its curvature radius on defocus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement results. Sample mirror is placed (a) on a wooden table with optical feedback, (b) on an optical bench but without optical feedback.

Equations (2)

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|Z|2=r02+a2+b2+2ab cos[2k(L2-L1)]1-2c2-2d2-2cd cos[2k(L2-L1)],
2k(L2-L1)=2mπ+ΔΦ,

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