Abstract

Flow property measurements that were recently acquired in the Ames Research Center Aerodynamic Heating Facility arcjet using two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of atomic nitrogen (N) are reported. The flow properties, which include velocity, translational temperature, and N concentration, were measured simultaneously over a range of facility operating conditions for N2–argon test gas flows in the 30-cm-diameter nozzle. A recent measurement of the two-photon excitation cross section for the 3p 4 D° ← 2p 4 S° transition of atomic nitrogen is used to convert the relative nitrogen concentration measurements to absolute values, and a nitrogen flow reactor is used to provide a room-temperature, reference-wavelength calibration of the translational temperature and velocity measurements. When combined with information from facility measurements, an analysis of the flow properties obtained using two-photon LIF of N yields the total free-stream flow enthalpy.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Scott, “Survey of measurements of flow properties in arcjets,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 7, 9–24 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Balter-Peterson, F. Nichols, B. Mifsud, W. Love, “Arc jet testing in NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities,” paper AIAA-92-5041, presented at the Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference, Orlando, Fla., 1–4 December 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).
  3. G. A. Raiche, “Molecular ultraviolet and visible emission from an air arc jet bow shock,” ISA Paper No. 94-3020, in 40th International Instrumentation Symposium (International Society for Measurement and Control, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1994).
  4. D. S. Babikian, C. Park, G. A. Raiche, “Spectroscopic determination of enthalpy in an arc-jet wind tunnel,” paper AIAA-95-0712, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).
  5. N. K. J. M. Gopaul, “Spectral measurement of nonequilibrium arc-jet free stream flow,” ISA Paper No. 93-144, in 39th International Instrumentation Symposium (International Society for Measurement and Control, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1993).
  6. D. S. Babikian, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, C. Park, “Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arcjet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 737–743 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, “Spectroscopic measurements of the flows in an arc-jet facility,” paper AIAA-98-0893, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).
  9. T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Velocity and chemical composition measurements in an arc jet flow,” paper AIAA-95-2039, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).
  12. D. A. Stewart, Y.-K. Chen, D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Predicting material surface catalytic efficiency using arc-jet tests,” paper AIAA-95-2013, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).
  13. D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185–198 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. G. Fletcher, “Arcjet flow properties determined from laser-induced fluorescence of atomic nitrogen,” paper AIAA-98-0205, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).
  15. D. G. Fletcher, J. C. McDaniel, “Collisional shift and broadening of I2 spectral lines in air near 543 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 837–850 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Intramultiplet energy transfer in the collisions of 3p4D° nitrogen atoms with nitrogen molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2200–2205 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, “Absolute calibration of a fluorescence collection system by Raman scattering of H2,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1215–1221 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Balboni, Thermophysics Facilities Branch, NASA Ames Research Center (personal communication, August1997).
  20. H. W. Leipmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 149.
  21. W. G. Vincenti, C. H. Krueger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1982), p. 152.
  22. D. G. Fletcher, D. J. Bamford, “Arcjet flow characterization using laser-induced fluorescence of atomic species,” paper AIAA-98-2458, presented at the Seventh AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 15–18 June 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

1998 (2)

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher, J. C. McDaniel, “Collisional shift and broadening of I2 spectral lines in air near 543 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 837–850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. S. Babikian, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, C. Park, “Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arcjet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 737–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Scott, “Survey of measurements of flow properties in arcjets,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 7, 9–24 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Intramultiplet energy transfer in the collisions of 3p4D° nitrogen atoms with nitrogen molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2200–2205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, “Absolute calibration of a fluorescence collection system by Raman scattering of H2,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1215–1221 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185–198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babikian, D. S.

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Babikian, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, C. Park, “Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arcjet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 737–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Babikian, C. Park, G. A. Raiche, “Spectroscopic determination of enthalpy in an arc-jet wind tunnel,” paper AIAA-95-0712, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Balboni, J.

J. Balboni, Thermophysics Facilities Branch, NASA Ames Research Center (personal communication, August1997).

Balter-Peterson, A.

A. Balter-Peterson, F. Nichols, B. Mifsud, W. Love, “Arc jet testing in NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities,” paper AIAA-92-5041, presented at the Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference, Orlando, Fla., 1–4 December 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

Bamford, D. J.

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185–198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, “Absolute calibration of a fluorescence collection system by Raman scattering of H2,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1215–1221 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher, D. J. Bamford, “Arcjet flow characterization using laser-induced fluorescence of atomic species,” paper AIAA-98-2458, presented at the Seventh AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 15–18 June 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Velocity and chemical composition measurements in an arc jet flow,” paper AIAA-95-2039, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

D. A. Stewart, Y.-K. Chen, D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Predicting material surface catalytic efficiency using arc-jet tests,” paper AIAA-95-2013, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Bischel, W. K.

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, “Absolute calibration of a fluorescence collection system by Raman scattering of H2,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1215–1221 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185–198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-K.

D. A. Stewart, Y.-K. Chen, D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Predicting material surface catalytic efficiency using arc-jet tests,” paper AIAA-95-2013, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Copeland, R. A.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Intramultiplet energy transfer in the collisions of 3p4D° nitrogen atoms with nitrogen molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2200–2205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Intramultiplet energy transfer in the collisions of 3p4D° nitrogen atoms with nitrogen molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2200–2205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, D. G.

T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher, J. C. McDaniel, “Collisional shift and broadening of I2 spectral lines in air near 543 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 837–850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher, “Arcjet flow properties determined from laser-induced fluorescence of atomic nitrogen,” paper AIAA-98-0205, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

D. G. Fletcher, D. J. Bamford, “Arcjet flow characterization using laser-induced fluorescence of atomic species,” paper AIAA-98-2458, presented at the Seventh AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 15–18 June 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, “Spectroscopic measurements of the flows in an arc-jet facility,” paper AIAA-98-0893, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

Gökçen, T.

T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, “Spectroscopic measurements of the flows in an arc-jet facility,” paper AIAA-98-0893, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

Gopaul, N. K. J. M.

D. S. Babikian, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, C. Park, “Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arcjet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 737–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. K. J. M. Gopaul, “Spectral measurement of nonequilibrium arc-jet free stream flow,” ISA Paper No. 93-144, in 39th International Instrumentation Symposium (International Society for Measurement and Control, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1993).

Hickman, A. P.

R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Intramultiplet energy transfer in the collisions of 3p4D° nitrogen atoms with nitrogen molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2200–2205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jusinski, L. E.

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, “Absolute calibration of a fluorescence collection system by Raman scattering of H2,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1215–1221 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185–198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, C. H.

W. G. Vincenti, C. H. Krueger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1982), p. 152.

Leipmann, H. W.

H. W. Leipmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 149.

Love, W.

A. Balter-Peterson, F. Nichols, B. Mifsud, W. Love, “Arc jet testing in NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities,” paper AIAA-92-5041, presented at the Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference, Orlando, Fla., 1–4 December 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

McDaniel, J. C.

D. G. Fletcher, J. C. McDaniel, “Collisional shift and broadening of I2 spectral lines in air near 543 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 837–850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mifsud, B.

A. Balter-Peterson, F. Nichols, B. Mifsud, W. Love, “Arc jet testing in NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities,” paper AIAA-92-5041, presented at the Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference, Orlando, Fla., 1–4 December 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

Newfield, M. E.

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, “Spectroscopic measurements of the flows in an arc-jet facility,” paper AIAA-98-0893, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

Nichols, F.

A. Balter-Peterson, F. Nichols, B. Mifsud, W. Love, “Arc jet testing in NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities,” paper AIAA-92-5041, presented at the Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference, Orlando, Fla., 1–4 December 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

O’Keefe, A.

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

D. S. Babikian, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, C. Park, “Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arcjet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 737–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Babikian, C. Park, G. A. Raiche, “Spectroscopic determination of enthalpy in an arc-jet wind tunnel,” paper AIAA-95-0712, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Park, C. S.

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, “Spectroscopic measurements of the flows in an arc-jet facility,” paper AIAA-98-0893, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

Raiche, G. A.

D. S. Babikian, C. Park, G. A. Raiche, “Spectroscopic determination of enthalpy in an arc-jet wind tunnel,” paper AIAA-95-0712, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

G. A. Raiche, “Molecular ultraviolet and visible emission from an air arc jet bow shock,” ISA Paper No. 94-3020, in 40th International Instrumentation Symposium (International Society for Measurement and Control, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1994).

Romanovsky, A.

D. A. Stewart, Y.-K. Chen, D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Predicting material surface catalytic efficiency using arc-jet tests,” paper AIAA-95-2013, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Velocity and chemical composition measurements in an arc jet flow,” paper AIAA-95-2039, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Roshko, A.

H. W. Leipmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 149.

Scott, C.

C. Scott, “Survey of measurements of flow properties in arcjets,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 7, 9–24 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. P.

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, D. A.

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stewart, Y.-K. Chen, D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Predicting material surface catalytic efficiency using arc-jet tests,” paper AIAA-95-2013, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

Strawa, A. W.

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vincenti, W. G.

W. G. Vincenti, C. H. Krueger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1982), p. 152.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. A. Copeland, J. B. Jeffries, A. P. Hickman, D. R. Crosley, “Radiative lifetime and quenching of the 3p4D° state of atomic nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 4876–4884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Intramultiplet energy transfer in the collisions of 3p4D° nitrogen atoms with nitrogen molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2200–2205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

D. G. Fletcher, J. C. McDaniel, “Collisional shift and broadening of I2 spectral lines in air near 543 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 837–850 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer (5)

D. S. Babikian, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, C. Park, “Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arcjet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 737–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, S. P. Sharma, “Spectroscopic emission measurements within the blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet flow,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 190–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Scott, “Survey of measurements of flow properties in arcjets,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 7, 9–24 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Gökçen, C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, “Computational simulation of emission spectra from shock layer flows in an arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 180–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, A. O’Keefe, D. S. Babikian, D. A. Stewart, A. W. Strawa, “Characterization of arc-jet flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 9, 26–33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185–198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (12)

D. G. Fletcher, “Arcjet flow properties determined from laser-induced fluorescence of atomic nitrogen,” paper AIAA-98-0205, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

C. S. Park, M. E. Newfield, D. G. Fletcher, T. Gökçen, “Spectroscopic measurements of the flows in an arc-jet facility,” paper AIAA-98-0893, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

J. Balboni, Thermophysics Facilities Branch, NASA Ames Research Center (personal communication, August1997).

H. W. Leipmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 149.

W. G. Vincenti, C. H. Krueger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1982), p. 152.

D. G. Fletcher, D. J. Bamford, “Arcjet flow characterization using laser-induced fluorescence of atomic species,” paper AIAA-98-2458, presented at the Seventh AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 15–18 June 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1998).

D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Velocity and chemical composition measurements in an arc jet flow,” paper AIAA-95-2039, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

D. A. Stewart, Y.-K. Chen, D. J. Bamford, A. Romanovsky, “Predicting material surface catalytic efficiency using arc-jet tests,” paper AIAA-95-2013, presented at the 30th Thermophysics Conference, San Diego, Calif., 19–22 June 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

A. Balter-Peterson, F. Nichols, B. Mifsud, W. Love, “Arc jet testing in NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities,” paper AIAA-92-5041, presented at the Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference, Orlando, Fla., 1–4 December 1992 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1992).

G. A. Raiche, “Molecular ultraviolet and visible emission from an air arc jet bow shock,” ISA Paper No. 94-3020, in 40th International Instrumentation Symposium (International Society for Measurement and Control, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1994).

D. S. Babikian, C. Park, G. A. Raiche, “Spectroscopic determination of enthalpy in an arc-jet wind tunnel,” paper AIAA-95-0712, presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 9–12 January 1995 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1995).

N. K. J. M. Gopaul, “Spectral measurement of nonequilibrium arc-jet free stream flow,” ISA Paper No. 93-144, in 39th International Instrumentation Symposium (International Society for Measurement and Control, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1993).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the NASA Ames AHF arcjet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration for the arcjet two-photon LIF experiments. BBO, β barium borate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example spectra from two-photon LIF of N in the flow reactor and the arcjet free stream.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transition spacing Δ and width Δλ in the N/N2 flow reactor as a function of the cell pressure. Note that there is no increase in either parameter with increasing pressure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arcjet free-stream velocities as a function of arc current at two different chamber pressures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured translational temperatures in the arcjet free stream as a function of arc current.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absolute and relative [N] as a function of arc current. The relative values, denoted by the squares and triangles, are shifted by 40 A from the absolute values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Atomic nitrogen mass fraction as a function of arc current in the arcjet free stream.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Total enthalpy on the arcjet free-stream centerline as a function of the arc current.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fractional distribution of the total centerline enthalpy as a function of the arc current.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Arcjet Test Conditions for the LIF Experiments

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Table 2 Beam and Collection Parameters for [N] Measurements

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Table 3 Fluorescence Lifetimes, Pitot Pressures, and Mass Flow Rates for the Arcjet Tests

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Table 4 Constituent Specific Heats, Gas Constants, and Molar Masses used in Eq. (5)

Equations (7)

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v=cΔλλ cos θ,
T=MNc28 ln2knAνˆ2ΔνˆT,F2-ΔνˆT,R2-ΔνˆD,R2,
nN=4πDτradτobsAP F2tdthν2G2σ2  SNEp2ωdω,
ρ=ppv2 γ2γγ+11γ-1γ+12-γγ-1,  for M  1.
wN=nNMNρnA.
wAr=m˙Arm˙T,wN2=1-wAr-wN.
hT=i wicpiT+v22+wNRN2ΘdN,

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