Abstract

The diode-laser absorption technique was applied for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements of an argon plume exhausted by an arcjet. The Ar i absorption line at 811.531 nm was taken as the center absorption line. The velocity and the temperature were derived from the Doppler shift in the absorption profiles and the full width at half-maximum of the plume absorption profile, respectively. From the measured plume velocity and temperature, the total enthalpy of the exhausted plume, the thrust efficiency, and the thermal efficiency of the arcjet were derived, and the performance of the arcjet was examined. The results are demonstrated to agree with results derived by other methods, and the technique can be applied to the measurement of other arcjet systems without much modification.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. M. Golz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, H. L. Kurtz, H. O. Schrade, “High power arcjet thruster experiments,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.
  2. E. Tosti, W. D. Deininger, “Plume analysis of a 10 kW/N arcjet using emission spectroscopy,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.
  3. J. G. Liebeskind, R. K. Hanson, M. A. Cappelli, “Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic for temperature and velocity measurements in a hydrogen arcjet plume,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6117–6227 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Cruciani, M. J. Glogowski, W. D. Deininger, A. Trii, “Advanced laboratory model, 1 kW-class arcjet engine testing,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.
  5. A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).
  6. T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.
  7. H. Tahara, N. Uda, Y. Tsubakishita, T. Yoshikawa, “Optical measurement and numerical analysis of medium-power arcjet non-equilibrium flowfields,” presented at the 23rd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Washington, 13–16 September 1993.
  8. J. M. Sankovic, J. A. Hamley, T. W. Haag, “Hydrogen arcjet technology,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Miller, S. Elreedy, B. Ahvazi, F. Woldu, P. Hassanzadeh, “Tunable diode-laser measurement of carbon monoxide concentration and temperature in a laminar methane–air diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6082–6089 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Arroyo, S. Langlogis, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption technique for simultaneous measurement of multiple gasdynamic parameters in high-speed flows containing water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3296–3370 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. C. Rea, R. K. Hanson, “Rapid extended range tuning of single-mode ring dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 518–520 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region, linestrengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level–dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2Π(1, 0) band of OH in hydrogen–air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 107–117 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. C. Luck, W. Thielen, “Measurement of temperatures and OH- concentrations in a lean methane–air flame using high resolution laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71–79 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. G. Mellon, Analytical Absorption Spectroscopy (Absorptimetry and Colorimetry) (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 78–114.
  17. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 137–300.
  18. G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 17–52.
  19. Y. Nakamura, M. Ishiguro, “Ionization characteristics of arc-heated wind tunnel flow,” J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 43, 467–472 (1995).
  20. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964), pp. 315–333.
  21. F. Y. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, K. Komurasaki, “Computerized tomography for reconstruction of the parameters of arcjet plume,” AIAA paper 99-0459, presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1999).
  22. Y. B. Zel’dovich, Y. P. Raizer, W. D. Hayes, R. F. Probstein, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 107–172.
  23. W. M. Ruyten, D. Keefer, “Two-beam multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence measurements of an argon arcjet plume,” AIAA J. 31, 2083–2089 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. A. Cook, Argon Helium and the Rare Gases (The Elements of the Helium Group) (Interscience, New York, 1961), pp. 65–155.
  25. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels (As Derived From the Analyses of Optical Spectra), Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.467, Vol. 1, 211–222 (1949).
  26. F. M. Phelps, M.I.T. Wavelength Tables–Wavelengths by Element (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.1991), Vol. 2, pp. 1–13.
  27. D. G. Fletcher, “Arcjet flow properties determined from laser-induced fluorescence of atomic nitrogen,” AIAA paper 98-0205, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1998).
  28. F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).
  29. A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “Chemkin-II: a fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics,” (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

1997

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

1996

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Y. Nakamura, M. Ishiguro, “Ionization characteristics of arc-heated wind tunnel flow,” J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 43, 467–472 (1995).

1994

1993

W. M. Ruyten, D. Keefer, “Two-beam multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence measurements of an argon arcjet plume,” AIAA J. 31, 2083–2089 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Miller, S. Elreedy, B. Ahvazi, F. Woldu, P. Hassanzadeh, “Tunable diode-laser measurement of carbon monoxide concentration and temperature in a laminar methane–air diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6082–6089 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Liebeskind, R. K. Hanson, M. A. Cappelli, “Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic for temperature and velocity measurements in a hydrogen arcjet plume,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6117–6227 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level–dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2Π(1, 0) band of OH in hydrogen–air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region, linestrengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

1978

K. C. Luck, W. Thielen, “Measurement of temperatures and OH- concentrations in a lean methane–air flame using high resolution laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71–79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ahvazi, B.

Allen, M. G.

W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level–dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2Π(1, 0) band of OH in hydrogen–air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

Auweter-Kurtz, M.

T. M. Golz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, H. L. Kurtz, H. O. Schrade, “High power arcjet thruster experiments,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Browell, E. V.

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region, linestrengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cappelli, M. A.

Cook, G. A.

G. A. Cook, Argon Helium and the Rare Gases (The Elements of the Helium Group) (Interscience, New York, 1961), pp. 65–155.

Cruciani, G.

G. Cruciani, M. J. Glogowski, W. D. Deininger, A. Trii, “Advanced laboratory model, 1 kW-class arcjet engine testing,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Davis, S. J.

W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level–dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2Π(1, 0) band of OH in hydrogen–air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deininger, W. D.

G. Cruciani, M. J. Glogowski, W. D. Deininger, A. Trii, “Advanced laboratory model, 1 kW-class arcjet engine testing,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

E. Tosti, W. D. Deininger, “Plume analysis of a 10 kW/N arcjet using emission spectroscopy,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 137–300.

Elreedy, S.

Fletcher, D. G.

D. G. Fletcher, “Arcjet flow properties determined from laser-induced fluorescence of atomic nitrogen,” AIAA paper 98-0205, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1998).

Foster, J. E.

A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).

Fujiwara, T.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

F. Y. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, K. Komurasaki, “Computerized tomography for reconstruction of the parameters of arcjet plume,” AIAA paper 99-0459, presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1999).

Gallimore, A. D.

A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).

Glogowski, M. J.

G. Cruciani, M. J. Glogowski, W. D. Deininger, A. Trii, “Advanced laboratory model, 1 kW-class arcjet engine testing,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Golz, T. M.

T. M. Golz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, H. L. Kurtz, H. O. Schrade, “High power arcjet thruster experiments,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964), pp. 315–333.

Grossmann, B. E.

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region, linestrengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gulczinski, F. S.

A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).

Haag, T. W.

J. M. Sankovic, J. A. Hamley, T. W. Haag, “Hydrogen arcjet technology,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Hamley, J. A.

J. M. Sankovic, J. A. Hamley, T. W. Haag, “Hydrogen arcjet technology,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Hanson, R. K.

Hassanzadeh, P.

Hayashi, T.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

Hayes, W. D.

Y. B. Zel’dovich, Y. P. Raizer, W. D. Hayes, R. F. Probstein, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 107–172.

Henry, D.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iida, T.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

Ishiguro, M.

Y. Nakamura, M. Ishiguro, “Ionization characteristics of arc-heated wind tunnel flow,” J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 43, 467–472 (1995).

Ishii, M.

T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Kee, R. J.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “Chemkin-II: a fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics,” (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Keefer, D.

W. M. Ruyten, D. Keefer, “Two-beam multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence measurements of an argon arcjet plume,” AIAA J. 31, 2083–2089 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, W. J.

W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level–dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2Π(1, 0) band of OH in hydrogen–air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).

King, L. B.

A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).

Kirkbright, G. F.

G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 17–52.

Komurasaki, K.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

F. Y. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, K. Komurasaki, “Computerized tomography for reconstruction of the parameters of arcjet plume,” AIAA paper 99-0459, presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1999).

Kurtz, H. L.

T. M. Golz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, H. L. Kurtz, H. O. Schrade, “High power arcjet thruster experiments,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Kusamoto, D.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

Langlogis, S.

Liebeskind, J. G.

Louvet, Y.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luck, K. C.

K. C. Luck, W. Thielen, “Measurement of temperatures and OH- concentrations in a lean methane–air flame using high resolution laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71–79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mellon, M. G.

M. G. Mellon, Analytical Absorption Spectroscopy (Absorptimetry and Colorimetry) (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 78–114.

Miller, J. A.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “Chemkin-II: a fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics,” (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Miller, J. H.

Mohamed, A.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels (As Derived From the Analyses of Optical Spectra), Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.467, Vol. 1, 211–222 (1949).

Nakamura, Y.

Y. Nakamura, M. Ishiguro, “Ionization characteristics of arc-heated wind tunnel flow,” J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 43, 467–472 (1995).

Onoe, K.

T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Phelps, F. M.

F. M. Phelps, M.I.T. Wavelength Tables–Wavelengths by Element (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.1991), Vol. 2, pp. 1–13.

Probstein, R. F.

Y. B. Zel’dovich, Y. P. Raizer, W. D. Hayes, R. F. Probstein, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 107–172.

Raizer, Y. P.

Y. B. Zel’dovich, Y. P. Raizer, W. D. Hayes, R. F. Probstein, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 107–172.

Rea, E. C.

Rosier, B.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rupley, F. M.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “Chemkin-II: a fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics,” (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Ruyten, W. M.

W. M. Ruyten, D. Keefer, “Two-beam multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence measurements of an argon arcjet plume,” AIAA J. 31, 2083–2089 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sankovic, J. M.

J. M. Sankovic, J. A. Hamley, T. W. Haag, “Hydrogen arcjet technology,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Sargent, M.

G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 17–52.

Schrade, H. O.

T. M. Golz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, H. L. Kurtz, H. O. Schrade, “High power arcjet thruster experiments,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Tahara, H.

H. Tahara, N. Uda, Y. Tsubakishita, T. Yoshikawa, “Optical measurement and numerical analysis of medium-power arcjet non-equilibrium flowfields,” presented at the 23rd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Washington, 13–16 September 1993.

Thielen, W.

K. C. Luck, W. Thielen, “Measurement of temperatures and OH- concentrations in a lean methane–air flame using high resolution laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71–79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tosti, E.

E. Tosti, W. D. Deininger, “Plume analysis of a 10 kW/N arcjet using emission spectroscopy,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Trii, A.

G. Cruciani, M. J. Glogowski, W. D. Deininger, A. Trii, “Advanced laboratory model, 1 kW-class arcjet engine testing,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Tsubakishita, Y.

H. Tahara, N. Uda, Y. Tsubakishita, T. Yoshikawa, “Optical measurement and numerical analysis of medium-power arcjet non-equilibrium flowfields,” presented at the 23rd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Washington, 13–16 September 1993.

Tsuri, S.

T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Uda, N.

H. Tahara, N. Uda, Y. Tsubakishita, T. Yoshikawa, “Optical measurement and numerical analysis of medium-power arcjet non-equilibrium flowfields,” presented at the 23rd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Washington, 13–16 September 1993.

Uematsu, K.

T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

Varghese, P. L.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woldu, F.

Yoshikawa, T.

T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

H. Tahara, N. Uda, Y. Tsubakishita, T. Yoshikawa, “Optical measurement and numerical analysis of medium-power arcjet non-equilibrium flowfields,” presented at the 23rd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Washington, 13–16 September 1993.

Zel’dovich, Y. B.

Y. B. Zel’dovich, Y. P. Raizer, W. D. Hayes, R. F. Probstein, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 107–172.

Zhang, F. Y.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

F. Y. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, K. Komurasaki, “Computerized tomography for reconstruction of the parameters of arcjet plume,” AIAA paper 99-0459, presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1999).

AIAA J.

W. M. Ruyten, D. Keefer, “Two-beam multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence measurements of an argon arcjet plume,” AIAA J. 31, 2083–2089 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci.

Y. Nakamura, M. Ishiguro, “Ionization characteristics of arc-heated wind tunnel flow,” J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 43, 467–472 (1995).

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region, linestrengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level–dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2Π(1, 0) band of OH in hydrogen–air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 107–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer.

K. C. Luck, W. Thielen, “Measurement of temperatures and OH- concentrations in a lean methane–air flame using high resolution laser-absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71–79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. E. Wieman, L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Iida, K. Komurasaki, T. Hayashi, D. Kusamoto, T. Fujiwara, “Velocity measurement of arcjet plume with diode laser absorption technique,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci. 40, 163–170 (1997).

Other

T. M. Golz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, H. L. Kurtz, H. O. Schrade, “High power arcjet thruster experiments,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

E. Tosti, W. D. Deininger, “Plume analysis of a 10 kW/N arcjet using emission spectroscopy,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

M. G. Mellon, Analytical Absorption Spectroscopy (Absorptimetry and Colorimetry) (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 78–114.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 137–300.

G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 17–52.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964), pp. 315–333.

F. Y. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, K. Komurasaki, “Computerized tomography for reconstruction of the parameters of arcjet plume,” AIAA paper 99-0459, presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1999).

Y. B. Zel’dovich, Y. P. Raizer, W. D. Hayes, R. F. Probstein, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 107–172.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “Chemkin-II: a fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics,” (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

G. Cruciani, M. J. Glogowski, W. D. Deininger, A. Trii, “Advanced laboratory model, 1 kW-class arcjet engine testing,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

A. D. Gallimore, S.-W. Kim, J. E. Foster, L. B. King, F. S. Gulczinski, “Near and far-field plume studies of a 1 kW arcjet,” AIAA paper 94-3137, presented at the 30th Joint Propulsion Conference, Indianapolis, Ind., 27–29 June 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1994).

T. Yoshikawa, K. Onoe, S. Tsuri, M. Ishii, K. Uematsu, “Development of a low power arcjet thruster,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

H. Tahara, N. Uda, Y. Tsubakishita, T. Yoshikawa, “Optical measurement and numerical analysis of medium-power arcjet non-equilibrium flowfields,” presented at the 23rd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Washington, 13–16 September 1993.

J. M. Sankovic, J. A. Hamley, T. W. Haag, “Hydrogen arcjet technology,” presented at the 22nd AIAA/AIDAA/DGLR/JSASS International Electric Propulsion Conference, Viareggio, Italy, 14–17 October 1991.

G. A. Cook, Argon Helium and the Rare Gases (The Elements of the Helium Group) (Interscience, New York, 1961), pp. 65–155.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels (As Derived From the Analyses of Optical Spectra), Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.467, Vol. 1, 211–222 (1949).

F. M. Phelps, M.I.T. Wavelength Tables–Wavelengths by Element (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.1991), Vol. 2, pp. 1–13.

D. G. Fletcher, “Arcjet flow properties determined from laser-induced fluorescence of atomic nitrogen,” AIAA paper 98-0205, presented at the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 12–15 January 1998 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1998).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic of the diode-laser absorption measurement of an arc-jet plume. #1–#4 are photodiode numbers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of the arcjet thruster. Dimensions are in millimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical traces recorded by the digital oscilloscope (mass flow rate, 0.12 g/s; input power, 3.6 kW).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-based absorption profiles and Gaussian fits for the data from Fig. 3. Dots, raw data from the oscilloscope; solid curves, Gaussian fits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FP data and least-squares best curve fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency-scale Doppler shift and FWHM obtained from Figs. 4 and 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Velocity and specific impulse characteristics for various operating conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Thrust efficiency versus specific impulse.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured translational temperature of the plume versus specific input power.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Total enthalpy of plume versus specific input power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Thermal efficiency of the arc-jet thruster versus specific input power.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transition Data for Argon

Tables Icon

Table 2 Diode-Laser Source Operating Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results from Direct Thrust Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 4 Specific Input Power (MJ/kg)

Equations (23)

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ΔI/I0=1-exp-κvL,
gv=2ln 2πVa, xΔvD.
ΔvD=2v0c2 ln 2κTm,
Va, x=aπ-+e-y2a2+x-y2dy,
a=ln 2ΔvcΔvD,
x=ln 2v-v0ΔvD.
Δvc=8.88×1014σc2P2RπT1m+1M,
Δvn=4πe2fijλ02mc,
gDv=2ΔvDln 2π exp-4 ln 2 v-v02ΔvD2.
V=Δvcv0 cos ϕ.
V= ρiViρi,
T=ΔvD7.16×10-7v02m.
σϕ/σ902-1= cos ϕ cosϕ-2β,
Qin=IU/m˙,
δFP=Δvp-p/ΔFP,
Δv=ΔvtδFP,
ΔvD=ΔvD,tδFP.
ΔVV=ΔΔvΔv2+cos2 ϕ-12Δxx2+sin2 ϕ2Δyy21/2,
ηT=F22m˙IU,
ηT=V22Qin.
ΔTT=2ΔΔvDΔvD.
hT=V22+RArT2.5013+1.0624×10-14T/2-2.6280×10-18T2/3+2.4880×10-22T3/4+7.9416×10-27T4/5-745.7665T
ηth=hT/Qin.

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