Abstract

Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminum-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes in a photosensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambiguously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with the uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe characterization.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).
  3. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, I. I. Smolyaninov, “Phase conjugation of an optical near field,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1601–1603 (1994); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field optical microscopy with a phase-conjugating mirror,” Opt. Commun. 148, 331–337 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992); A. Shchemelinin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Davy, M. Spajer, “Near-field optics: snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306–3308 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3859–3861 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, G. Tarrach, “Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-tunneling microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7795–8000 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Coello, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Imaging of surface plasmons with a near-field microscope,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 536–543 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip-surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Hoffmann, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland (personal communication, 1995).
  17. A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, “Near-field optics with uncoated fiber tips: light confinement and spatial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1656–1663 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function,” Opt. Commun. 116, 316–321 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, “Near-field optics with uncoated fiber tips: light confinement and spatial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1656–1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Davy, M. Spajer, “Near-field optics: snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306–3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (6)

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function,” Opt. Commun. 116, 316–321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3859–3861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, G. Tarrach, “Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-tunneling microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7795–8000 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, I. I. Smolyaninov, “Phase conjugation of an optical near field,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1601–1603 (1994); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field optical microscopy with a phase-conjugating mirror,” Opt. Commun. 148, 331–337 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992); A. Shchemelinin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramaniam, S.

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992); A. Shchemelinin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birkelund, K.

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blome, P. G.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bopp, M. A.

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, G. Tarrach, “Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-tunneling microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7795–8000 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, B. D.

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, “Near-field optics with uncoated fiber tips: light confinement and spatial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1656–1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, I. I. Smolyaninov, “Phase conjugation of an optical near field,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1601–1603 (1994); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field optical microscopy with a phase-conjugating mirror,” Opt. Commun. 148, 331–337 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip-surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Coello, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Imaging of surface plasmons with a near-field microscope,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 536–543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function,” Opt. Commun. 116, 316–321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cloninger, T. L.

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coello, V.

V. Coello, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Imaging of surface plasmons with a near-field microscope,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 536–543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3859–3861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davy, S.

S. Davy, M. Spajer, “Near-field optics: snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306–3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992); A. Shchemelinin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function,” Opt. Commun. 116, 316–321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gregor, M. J.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grey, F.

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hocken, R. J.

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, P.

P. Hoffmann, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland (personal communication, 1995).

Hvam, J. M.

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jalocha, A.

M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, O.

Kim, D. Y.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambelet, P.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macklin, J. J.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).

Madsen, S.

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marquis-Weible, F.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3859–3861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A. J.

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, G. Tarrach, “Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-tunneling microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7795–8000 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moers, M. H. P.

M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müllenhorn, M.

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, M.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, C.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pudonin, F. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Coello, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Imaging of surface plasmons with a near-field microscope,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 536–543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raja, J.

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ruiter, A. G. T.

M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayah, A.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schöfer, J.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3859–3861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, I. I. Smolyaninov, “Phase conjugation of an optical near field,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1601–1603 (1994); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field optical microscopy with a phase-conjugating mirror,” Opt. Commun. 148, 331–337 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spajer, M.

S. Davy, M. Spajer, “Near-field optics: snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306–3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tarrach, G.

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, G. Tarrach, “Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-tunneling microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7795–8000 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, R. G.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vohnsen, B.

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992); A. Shchemelinin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, G. Tarrach, “Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-tunneling microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7795–8000 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip-surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, S. K. Tripathy, “Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C.-H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992); A. Shchemelinin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993); B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Davy, M. Spajer, “Near-field optics: snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306–3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3859–3861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Madsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. Birkelund, M. Müllenhorn, J. M. Hvam, F. Grey, “Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 49–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, R. G. Ulbrich, “Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871–5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function,” Opt. Commun. 116, 316–321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, “Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Commun. 126, 285–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature,” Science 369, 40–42 (1994).

Ultramicroscopy (4)

M. H. P. Moers, A. G. T. Ruiter, A. Jalocha, N. F. van Hulst, “Detection of fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 279–283 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Cloninger, S. Balasubramaniam, B. D. Boudreau, J. Raja, R. J. Hocken, “A simple technique for screening near-field probes,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 223–227 (1995); C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, “Far field characterization of diffracting circular apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408–3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, F. Marquis-Weible, “Fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy fabricated by normal and reverse etching,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Light confinement in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Hoffmann, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland (personal communication, 1995).

V. Coello, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Imaging of surface plasmons with a near-field microscope,” in Optical Inspection and Micromeasurements II, C. Gorecki, ed., Proc. SPIE3098, 536–543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Different near-field optical probes used in the course of this study. Probes (a), (b), and (c) are conventional optical microscope images of uncoated probes; (d) is a scanning electron microscope image of an Al-coated small-aperture probe. The insets in (a) and (b) show light coupling (633 nm) through the probes, and the inset in (d) shows the probe head on. Note the different scales used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gray-scale images (2.5 µm × 2.5 µm) of the topography of a PMMA-DR1 film (a) before, (b)–(d) after exposure to light (488 nm) from an uncoated probe [see Fig. 1(b)]. During the exposure the probe-to-film distance was maintained constant with the shear-force technique and the probe was held at the position marked by a circle in (a). The power coupled into the fiber was decreased by a factor of 6 from (b) to (c) and by a factor of 2.5 from (c) to (d). The depth of the topographical image is (a) ∼8 nm, (b) ∼180 nm, (c) ∼50 nm, and (d) ∼20 nm. Each subimage is shown with a maximum of contrast in accordance with the gray-scale bar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gray-scale images (2.5 µm × 2.5 µm) of the topography of PMMA-DR1 films after 3-min exposure to light (488 nm) from the different types of probe shown in Fig. 1: (a) etched fiber, (b) protective-layer etched fiber, (c) pulled fiber, (d) Al-coated small-aperture probe. The depth of the topographical image is (a) ∼80 nm, (b) ∼40 nm, (c) ∼150 nm, and (d) ∼50 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal (filled circles) and vertical (open circles) cross sections through the central part of the images shown in Fig. 3. Other details are the same as those of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gray-scale images (2.5 µm × 2.5 µm) of (a) prism topography and (b) optical signal related to interference of two counterpropagating evanescent waves. The images were obtained with an uncoated probe [see Fig. 1(a)]. The depth of the topographical image is ∼20 nm, and the period of the interference fringes is ∼290 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal versus probe position related to interference of two counterpropagating evanescent waves obtained with (a) etched uncoated probes [etched fiber (solid curve), protective-layer etched fiber (dashed curve)], (b) with a pulled uncoated fiber (solid curve) and an Al-coated small-aperture probe (dashed curve), respectively. The various curves (each curve was scaled independently) correspond to the probes shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gray-scale images (a) (1.0 µm × 1.0 µm), (b)–(d) (2.5 µm × 2.5 µm) of the optical signal recorded immediately after ∼10-min exposure with uncoated probes of a phase-conjugating mirror established by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe:LiNbO3 crystal. Both (a) and (b) were obtained with an etched fiber [see Fig. 1(a)], (c) has been obtained with a protective-layer etched fiber [see Fig. 1(b)], and (d) with a pulled fiber [see Fig. 1(c)]. During each exposure the probe was held fixed with the shear-force technique at the position marked by a circle.

Equations (1)

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Ix, z=Az1+C cos2πxΛ,

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