Abstract

We present experimental results that demonstrate the great efficiency of a core-doped Nd:YAG rod (a hexagonal Nd:YAG core surrounded by undoped YAG) in producing high output power and excellent beam quality. An additional improvement in beam quality is clearly observed when the core-doped rod is used in combination with a LiF:F2 - crystal, which acts as a passive Q-switching element. This improvement is quantified by beam-propagation factors as low as M 2 ≅ 4 at a maximum average output power of 9 W. We show that transversally pumped core-doped rods with the addition of LiF:F2 - crystals fulfill the requirements for high-beam-quality, scalable, compact all-solid-state lasers in passively Q-switched operation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. von Allmen, A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
  2. S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 358–366.
  4. F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).
  9. S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, H. Weber, “Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145–149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.
  12. T. T. Basiev, A. N. Kravets, A. V. Fedin, “Q-switching of a periodic-pulse-pumped industrial Nd:YAG laser by means of F2-:LiF crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 513–515 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. N. Kravets, S. A. Kravets, “YAG Nd laser system with parallel connection of active elements and passive Q-switching,” in Fifth International Conference on Industrial Lasers and Laser Application ’95, V. Y. Panchenko, V. S. Golubev, eds., Proc. SPIE2713, 124–129 (1996).
  14. V. P. Chebotayev, S. I. Marennikov, V. A. Smirnov, “Application of LiF crystals with F2- color centers,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 193–199 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.
  16. H. Zbinden, R. Weber, “Diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with parabolic pump cavity,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 29–31.
  17. R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 245–254 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Our rod was manufactured by Onyx Optics, 6545 Sierra Lane, Dublin, Calif. 94568.
  19. B. Neuenschwander, “Investigations on thermal effects in diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 1996).
  20. B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” in Optical Resonators, D. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 82–87.
  23. J. A. Morris, C. R. Pollock, “Passive Q switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 15, 440–442 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of the continuously pumped, repetitively Q-switched YAlG:Nd laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406–413 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 3rd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Chap. 5.

1999 (1)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 245–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, H. Weber, “Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. T. Basiev, A. N. Kravets, A. V. Fedin, “Q-switching of a periodic-pulse-pumped industrial Nd:YAG laser by means of F2-:LiF crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 513–515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

V. P. Chebotayev, S. I. Marennikov, V. A. Smirnov, “Application of LiF crystals with F2- color centers,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 193–199 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of the continuously pumped, repetitively Q-switched YAlG:Nd laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406–413 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, M.

M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, A. N. Kravets, A. V. Fedin, “Q-switching of a periodic-pulse-pumped industrial Nd:YAG laser by means of F2-:LiF crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 513–515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Beach, R. J.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beck, Th.

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

Blatter, A.

M. von Allmen, A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

Bostanjoglo, G.

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

Bowers, M. S.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. P. Chebotayev, S. I. Marennikov, V. A. Smirnov, “Application of LiF crystals with F2- color centers,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 193–199 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cousins, A. K.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dascalu, T.

T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, H. Weber, “Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dausinger, F.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, M. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fedin, A. V.

T. T. Basiev, A. N. Kravets, A. V. Fedin, “Q-switching of a periodic-pulse-pumped industrial Nd:YAG laser by means of F2-:LiF crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 513–515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Galvin, M. F.

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of the continuously pumped, repetitively Q-switched YAlG:Nd laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406–413 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Garnov, S. V.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasamatsu, T.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klimentov, S. M.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 358–366.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 82–87.

Kononenko, T. V.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konov, V. I.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konyushkin, A.

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Kravets, A. N.

T. T. Basiev, A. N. Kravets, A. V. Fedin, “Q-switching of a periodic-pulse-pumped industrial Nd:YAG laser by means of F2-:LiF crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 513–515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Kravets, S. A. Kravets, “YAG Nd laser system with parallel connection of active elements and passive Q-switching,” in Fifth International Conference on Industrial Lasers and Laser Application ’95, V. Y. Panchenko, V. S. Golubev, eds., Proc. SPIE2713, 124–129 (1996).

Kravets, S. A.

A. N. Kravets, S. A. Kravets, “YAG Nd laser system with parallel connection of active elements and passive Q-switching,” in Fifth International Conference on Industrial Lasers and Laser Application ’95, V. Y. Panchenko, V. S. Golubev, eds., Proc. SPIE2713, 124–129 (1996).

Lubnin, E. N.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lucianetti, A.

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

MacDonald, M.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marennikov, S. I.

V. P. Chebotayev, S. I. Marennikov, V. A. Smirnov, “Application of LiF crystals with F2- color centers,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 193–199 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Miller, I.

M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.

Miller, R. J. D.

M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.

Mitchell, S. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, J.

M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.

Morris, J. A.

Muller, N. G.

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 245–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, “Investigations on thermal effects in diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 1996).

Papashvili, A.

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Payne, S. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Philipps, G.

T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, H. Weber, “Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, G.

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

Pollock, C. R.

Raiber, A.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ross, M. B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarady, I.

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

Seamans, J. F.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” in Optical Resonators, D. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skidmore, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. A.

V. P. Chebotayev, S. I. Marennikov, V. A. Smirnov, “Application of LiF crystals with F2- color centers,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 193–199 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of the continuously pumped, repetitively Q-switched YAlG:Nd laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406–413 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Speth, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S. B.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 3rd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Chap. 5.

Taguchi, N.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tidwell, S. C.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekane, M.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Allmen, M.

M. von Allmen, A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

Weber, H.

T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, H. Weber, “Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

Weber, H. P.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 245–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Weber, R.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 245–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, R. Weber, “Diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with parabolic pump cavity,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 29–31.

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Zbinden, H.

H. Zbinden, R. Weber, “Diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with parabolic pump cavity,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 29–31.

Zhu, X.

M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. P. Chebotayev, S. I. Marennikov, V. A. Smirnov, “Application of LiF crystals with F2- color centers,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 193–199 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Ross, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of the continuously pumped, repetitively Q-switched YAlG:Nd laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406–413 (1967).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelektron. (1)

G. Bostanjoglo, I. Sarady, Th. Beck, G. Phillips, H. Weber, “Drilling of superalloys with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Laser Optoelektron. 27, 47–51 (1995).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, H. Weber, “Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state materials,” Opt. Mater. 11, 245–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. T. Basiev, A. N. Kravets, A. V. Fedin, “Q-switching of a periodic-pulse-pumped industrial Nd:YAG laser by means of F2-:LiF crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 513–515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

A. N. Kravets, S. A. Kravets, “YAG Nd laser system with parallel connection of active elements and passive Q-switching,” in Fifth International Conference on Industrial Lasers and Laser Application ’95, V. Y. Panchenko, V. S. Golubev, eds., Proc. SPIE2713, 124–129 (1996).

A. Lucianetti, N. G. Muller, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, A. Papashvili, A. Konyushkin, T. T. Basiev, “Highly efficient high-average power Nd:YAG laser with a passive Q-switch,” in Proceedings of NATO ARW on Optical Resonators, R. Kossowsky, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 405–417.

Our rod was manufactured by Onyx Optics, 6545 Sierra Lane, Dublin, Calif. 94568.

B. Neuenschwander, “Investigations on thermal effects in diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 1996).

M. Armstrong, X. Zhu, R. J. D. Miller, J. Montgomery, I. Miller, “Novel composite structure Nd:YAG gain medium for high power scaling of side pumped configuration,” in digest of the technical meeting on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 45–47.

H. Zbinden, R. Weber, “Diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with parabolic pump cavity,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 29–31.

S. V. Garnov, S. M. Klimentov, T. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, E. N. Lubnin, F. Dausinger, A. Raiber, “Laser processing of ceramics and metals by high intense picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses in UV, visible and IR range of spectrum,” in Lasers as Tools for Manufacturing of Durable Goods and Microelectronics, L. R. Migliore, C. S. Roychoudhuri, R. D. Schaeffer, J. Mazumder, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE2703, 442–456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 358–366.

M. von Allmen, A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 3rd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Chap. 5.

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” in Optical Resonators, D. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 82–87.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Trans-Duct transversal pumping geometry. We accomplished scaling straightforwardly by increasing the thickness of the glass plate and multiplying the number of bars in the stacked array. The overall dimensions are 28-mm length and 20-mm height.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integrated fluorescence intensity distribution: (a) calculated for the homogeneously doped rod, (b) recorded from the homogeneously doped rod, (c) recorded from the composite rod. To obtain (b) and (c) we used a digital CCD camera with a pixel size of 12.4 µm × 8.7 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power and beam-propagation factors M 2 in (a) cw and (b) Q-switched operation with the T 0 = 80% LiF:F2 - crystal for the homogeneously doped rod and the composite rod. Note that, for the homogeneously doped rod in (b), only the six experimental points that correspond to pump power values in the range 120–200 W were used for the linear fit (solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Frequency and pulse duration and (b) energy per pulse and peak power in Q-switched operation for the homogeneously doped and composite rods. The initial transmission T 0 of the LiF:F2 - crystal was 80%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

M 2 as a function of pump power for the composite rod and for several passive Q switches. Initial transmissions of 80%, 70% and 60% of the LiF:F 2 - crystal are graphed.

Equations (6)

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R1R2 expg-γ2l=1,
expg0,comp.rod-g0,hom.rod2l=1,
g0,comp.rod=g0,hom.rod.
g0=σΔN=σ fτhvpumpPabsV,
Pth,homPth,comp=VhomVcomp1-exp-2αrcomp1-exp-2αr=3.2,
ηopt,compηopt,hom  Pabs,compPabs,hom  1-exp-2αrcomp1-exp-2αr  0.66.

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