Abstract

The tunable output power characteristics of a fiber ring semiconductor laser have been studied by use of rate equations. An expression for the tunable output power is deduced. The analysis confirms that there is an optimum coupler splitting ratio to trade off between wavelength tuning width and output power.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Multiple output semiconductor ring lasers with high external quantum efficiency,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 144, 19–22 (1997).
  2. P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Kane, R. L. Byer, “Monolithic unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65–67 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hannah, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ji, M. H. Leary, J. M. Ballanlyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 469–471 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring lasers with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2457–2459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Oku, M. Okayasu, M. Ikeda, “Control of unidirectional oscillation in semiconductor orbiter lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1066–1068 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1500–1507 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Very low threshold current operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part 139, 383–388 (1992).
  12. J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. P. Hohimer, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, “Semiconductor ring lasers with reflection output couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 278–280 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, J. M. Ballanlyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 469–471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Multiple output semiconductor ring lasers with high external quantum efficiency,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 144, 19–22 (1997).

1995

J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1500–1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. P. Hohimer, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, “Semiconductor ring lasers with reflection output couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 278–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring lasers with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Very low threshold current operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part 139, 383–388 (1992).

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hannah, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, M. Ikeda, “Control of unidirectional oscillation in semiconductor orbiter lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1066–1068 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

Amantea, R.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ballanlyne, J. M.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, J. M. Ballanlyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 469–471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Carlson, N. W.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chien, M. D.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hannah, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Craft, D. C.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1500–1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Evans, G. A.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

J. P. Hohimer, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, “Semiconductor ring lasers with reflection output couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 278–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, J. M.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hannah, D. C.

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hannah, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hohimer, J. P.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring lasers with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, “Semiconductor ring lasers with reflection output couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 278–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, M. Ikeda, “Control of unidirectional oscillation in semiconductor orbiter lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1066–1068 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, J. M. Ballanlyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 469–471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Koren, U.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Multiple output semiconductor ring lasers with high external quantum efficiency,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 144, 19–22 (1997).

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1500–1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Very low threshold current operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part 139, 383–388 (1992).

Laybourn, P. J.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1500–1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Multiple output semiconductor ring lasers with high external quantum efficiency,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 144, 19–22 (1997).

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Very low threshold current operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part 139, 383–388 (1992).

Leary, M. H.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, J. M. Ballanlyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 469–471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lurie, M.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okayasu, M.

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, M. Ikeda, “Control of unidirectional oscillation in semiconductor orbiter lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1066–1068 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oku, S.

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, M. Ikeda, “Control of unidirectional oscillation in semiconductor orbiter lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1066–1068 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Palfrey, S. L.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G. R.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring lasers with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, “Semiconductor ring lasers with reflection output couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 278–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Verdiell, J. M.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Warren, M. E.

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xia, G.

J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Young, M. G.

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Multiple output semiconductor ring lasers with high external quantum efficiency,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 144, 19–22 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring lasers with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, M. E. Warren, “Single-frequency continuous-wave operation of ring resonator diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3360–3362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, “Improving the performance of semiconductor ring lasers by controlled reflection feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1013–1015 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, “Semiconductor ring lasers with reflection output couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 278–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Amantea, N. W. Carlson, S. L. Palfrey, G. A. Evans, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, “Network analysis of the modes of two-dimensional grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1023–1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, J. M. Ballanlyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 469–471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, M. Ikeda, “Control of unidirectional oscillation in semiconductor orbiter lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1066–1068 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hansen, G. R. Raybon, M. D. Chien, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, J. M. Verdiell, C. A. Burrus, “A 1.55 µm monolithic semiconductor ring laser: cw and mode-locked operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 63, 411–413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1500–1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hannah, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

T. J. Kane, R. L. Byer, “Monolithic unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65–67 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Xia, Y. Lu, “Simple equations used to study the wavelength of two-segment bistable diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1296–1300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Very low threshold current operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part 139, 383–388 (1992).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Multiple output semiconductor ring lasers with high external quantum efficiency,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 144, 19–22 (1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the FRSL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of P with λ, where I = 80 mA and k is either 0.3 or 0.6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the splitting ratio on wavelength tuning range (curve A) at left and on output power (curve B) at right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of parameter C with different splitting ratios k, where I is either 80 or 90 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curve of output power fluctuation varied with different splitting ratios k where I = 80 mA, λ = 1310 nm, and curves A and B correspond to splitting ratio fluctuations of ±0.05 and ±0.03, respectively.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IeAL=Nzτ+aNzHλ-N0Sz,
Szz=aΓNzHλ-N0Sz-αSz,
Hλ=1+λ-λ02/Q2-1,
S0=SLkη1η2,
SL=G1-YaατHλ1-Ykη1η2,
G=aΓIτHλeAL-N0-α,
Y=exp-αGL+lnkη1η2G+α.
C=ΔλP0,

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