Abstract

An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO2, O2, N2, C3H8, and H2O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major source of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” SAE paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).
  2. G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).
  3. M. Berckmüller, N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “The influence of local fuel concentration on cyclic variability of a lean burn stratified-charge engine,” SAE paper 970826 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
  4. B. Johansson, H. Neij, G. Juhlin, M. Aldén, “Residual gas visualization with laser induced fluorescence,” SAE paper 952463 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).
  5. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, P. A. Skaggs, R. W. Pitz, “Multi-species line Raman measurements in H2-air turbulent flames,” paper AIAA-94-0227, presented at the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 10–13 January 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).
  6. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  7. A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. S. Mansour, Y.-C. Chen, “Line Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation technique for combustion with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4252–4260 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
  13. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), p. 222.
  14. D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross-sections of selected hydrocarbons and freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. H. Paul, “The application of intensified array detectors to quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” paper AIAA-91-2315, presented at the 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).
  17. J. Janesick, T. Elliott, “History and advancement of large area scientific CCD imagers,” in Astronomical CCD Observing and Imaging, S. B. Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (BookCrafters, Laguna Hills, Calif., 1992).
  18. E. W. Rothe, P. Andresen, “Application of tunable excimer lasers to combustion diagnostics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3971–4033 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. M. Lerner, A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy (Instruments, SA, Edison, N.J., 1988).
  20. F. Rabenstein, A. Leipertz, “Two-dimensional temperature determination in the exhaust region of a laminar flat-flame burner with linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6989–6996 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. J. Hargis, “Trace detection of N2 by KrF-laser-excited spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 20, 149–152 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” SAE paper 960828 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  24. M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” SAE paper 981428 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

M. S. Mansour, Y.-C. Chen, “Line Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation technique for combustion with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4252–4260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross-sections of selected hydrocarbons and freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

B. Johansson, H. Neij, G. Juhlin, M. Aldén, “Residual gas visualization with laser induced fluorescence,” SAE paper 952463 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

Andresen, P.

E. W. Rothe, P. Andresen, “Application of tunable excimer lasers to combustion diagnostics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3971–4033 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major source of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” SAE paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berckmüller, M.

M. Berckmüller, N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “The influence of local fuel concentration on cyclic variability of a lean burn stratified-charge engine,” SAE paper 970826 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Beushausen, V.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major source of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” SAE paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

Brockhinke, A.

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, P. A. Skaggs, R. W. Pitz, “Multi-species line Raman measurements in H2-air turbulent flames,” paper AIAA-94-0227, presented at the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 10–13 January 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Carter, C. D.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

DeBarber, P. A.

Dibble, R. W.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dilligan, M.

P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” SAE paper 960828 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), p. 222.

Elliott, T.

J. Janesick, T. Elliott, “History and advancement of large area scientific CCD imagers,” in Astronomical CCD Observing and Imaging, S. B. Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (BookCrafters, Laguna Hills, Calif., 1992).

Fiechtner, G. J.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

M. Berckmüller, N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “The influence of local fuel concentration on cyclic variability of a lean burn stratified-charge engine,” SAE paper 970826 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Grünefeld, G.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major source of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” SAE paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

Hanson, R. K.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hargis, P. J.

Hentschel, W.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major source of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” SAE paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

Hinze, P. C.

P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” SAE paper 981428 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Janesick, J.

J. Janesick, T. Elliott, “History and advancement of large area scientific CCD imagers,” in Astronomical CCD Observing and Imaging, S. B. Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (BookCrafters, Laguna Hills, Calif., 1992).

Johansson, B.

B. Johansson, H. Neij, G. Juhlin, M. Aldén, “Residual gas visualization with laser induced fluorescence,” SAE paper 952463 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

Juhlin, G.

B. Johansson, H. Neij, G. Juhlin, M. Aldén, “Residual gas visualization with laser induced fluorescence,” SAE paper 952463 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

Knapp, M.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

Kychakoff, G.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Lerner, J. M.

J. M. Lerner, A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy (Instruments, SA, Edison, N.J., 1988).

Luczak, A.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

Mansour, M. S.

Manz, P.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Miles, P. C.

P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” SAE paper 960828 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” SAE paper 981428 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Nandula, S. P.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, P. A. Skaggs, R. W. Pitz, “Multi-species line Raman measurements in H2-air turbulent flames,” paper AIAA-94-0227, presented at the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 10–13 January 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Neij, H.

B. Johansson, H. Neij, G. Juhlin, M. Aldén, “Residual gas visualization with laser induced fluorescence,” SAE paper 952463 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

Nguyen, Q. V.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, “The application of intensified array detectors to quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” paper AIAA-91-2315, presented at the 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Pitz, R. W.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, P. A. Skaggs, R. W. Pitz, “Multi-species line Raman measurements in H2-air turbulent flames,” paper AIAA-94-0227, presented at the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 10–13 January 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Rabenstein, F.

Rothe, E. W.

Skaggs, P. A.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, P. A. Skaggs, R. W. Pitz, “Multi-species line Raman measurements in H2-air turbulent flames,” paper AIAA-94-0227, presented at the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 10–13 January 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

Stephenson, D. A.

D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross-sections of selected hydrocarbons and freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tait, N. P.

M. Berckmüller, N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “The influence of local fuel concentration on cyclic variability of a lean burn stratified-charge engine,” SAE paper 970826 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Thevenon, A.

J. M. Lerner, A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy (Instruments, SA, Edison, N.J., 1988).

van Cruyningen, I.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent nonpremixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air Bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, “High resolution digital flowfield imaging of jets,” Exp. Fluids 9, 241–251 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross-sections of selected hydrocarbons and freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (14)

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major source of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” SAE paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” SAE paper 952394 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

M. Berckmüller, N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “The influence of local fuel concentration on cyclic variability of a lean burn stratified-charge engine,” SAE paper 970826 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

B. Johansson, H. Neij, G. Juhlin, M. Aldén, “Residual gas visualization with laser induced fluorescence,” SAE paper 952463 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995).

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, P. A. Skaggs, R. W. Pitz, “Multi-species line Raman measurements in H2-air turbulent flames,” paper AIAA-94-0227, presented at the 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 10–13 January 1994 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1994).

P. H. Paul, “The application of intensified array detectors to quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” paper AIAA-91-2315, presented at the 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

J. Janesick, T. Elliott, “History and advancement of large area scientific CCD imagers,” in Astronomical CCD Observing and Imaging, S. B. Howell, ed., Vol. 23 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (BookCrafters, Laguna Hills, Calif., 1992).

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” SAE paper 970827 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), p. 222.

P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” SAE paper 960828 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” SAE paper 981428 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

J. M. Lerner, A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy (Instruments, SA, Edison, N.J., 1988).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured probability density of total detector noise; includes dark noise, spurious charge generation, and detector read noise. Statistics were obtained using 64 × 64 pixel on-chip binning. A/D, analog-to-digital.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between intensified and unintensified detector options.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pictorial view of the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample image obtained in the swirling engine flow at -30 CAD. This image was ensemble averaged (on chip) over 200 engine cycles. The spectrum shown corresponds to the group of rows denoted by y CCD = 7.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample image obtained in the quiescent engine flow at -210 CAD. This image was ensemble averaged (on chip) over 200 engine cycles. The spectrum shown corresponds to the group of rows denoted by y CCD = 7.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample single-cycle image obtained under the same conditions as Fig. 5. The spectrum shown corresponds to the group of rows denoted by y CCD = 7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histograms of the instantaneous H2O mole fraction measured in the quiescent engine flow.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histograms of the instantaneous C3H8 mole fraction measured in the quiescent engine flow.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Histograms of the instantaneous H2O mole fraction measured in the swirling engine flow.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histograms of the instantaneous C3H8 mole fraction measured in the swirling engine flow.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized covariance functions obtained toward the end of the intake stroke in the quiescent engine flow.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Normalized covariance functions obtained toward the end of the compression stroke in the swirling engine flow.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Normalized covariance functions obtained at the top of the compression stroke in the quiescent engine flow.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Normalized covariance functions obtained at the top of the compression stroke in the swirling engine flow. The noise variance was removed and the resulting covariance functions were renormalized.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Decomposition of the measured signal into components associated with the mean signal, signal and random noise fluctuations, and systematic drift as could be introduced by a varying background.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Sample spectrum depicting the interferences between CO2, O2, and fuel.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimated Signal Levelsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimated Species and Equivalent Residual Gas rms Mole Fraction Fluctuationa

Equations (29)

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Si=Escat,ihνscat,i=ElaserσΩiχiNΩlηihνscat,i,
SNR=ηNppQηNppκQ2+Nx21/2.
Nx2=NbinNspurious2+Ndark2+Nread2.
Δλwdetdλ/dx.
δλwslitMspecdλ/dx,
wdetwslitMspecΔλ/δλ.
wdetMMspecΔxΔλ/δλ.
hdetMMspecl.
Ω=M2Ωspec.
Ri=σΩiσΩN2hνscat,N2hνscat,iηiηN2,
ni=χiN=SiCRi,
χi=Si/Rii Si/Ri.
χi=χN2RiSiSN2.
χi=aiχres.
χiχj=aiajχres2.
Cir=Cij * δy=1Nk=1N χi,kyCCDχi,kyCCD+j;  yCCD=1;  j=011.
Cir=Cij * δy=1N12-jk=1NyCCD=112-j χi,kyCCDχi,kyCCD+j;  j=011.
χiχi=-χres1-χres,
χiχi=χresχres.
li=1Ci00 Cirdr.
Si=Si+si+ni+bi.
χi=χN2RiSi+si+ni+biSN2+sN2+nN2+bN2.
χiχi+χi-χiχN2 χN2+1CRiN×ni+bi-RiχiχN2nN2+bN2.
χi2est=χi21-χiχN2χN2χi2+1CRiN2×ni21+Ri2χi2χN22nN22ni2+bi21-RiχiχN2bN2bi2.
χN2χi=aN2ai,
χi21-χiχN2χN2χi2=χi21-χiχN2aN2ai2.
χiχjest=χiχj1-χiχN2aN2ai1-χjχN2aN2aj+1C2N2χiχjχN22 nN22+1C2RiRjN2×bibj1-RiχiχN2bN2bi×1-RjχjχN2bN2bj.
χi,jχi,k=χi,jχi,k1-χi,jχN2,jaN2ai1-χi,kχN2,kaN2ai+1C2Ri,jRi,kN2bi,jbi,k×1-Ri,jχi,jχN2,jbN2,jbi,j×1-Ri,kχi,kχN2,kbN2,kbi,k.
SˆCO2SˆO2=1ab1SCO2SO2.

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